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The Communique

The Communique

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Published by sheetal.kakar5338

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Published by: sheetal.kakar5338 on Jun 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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I Concepts1. Pronoun Errors
 Pronoun reference Errors
E.g. Samantha and Jane went shopping, but she couldn’t find anything sheliked.Error: The above she could refer to either Samantha or Jane. This is a pronounerror of reference
E.g. The average moviegoer expects to see at least one scene of violence per film, and they are seldom disappointed.Error: Here they clearly refers to moviegoer, so obviously there is no referenceerror but the number is wrong. The usage of he is instead of they are isabsolutely perfect.
 Relative pronouns
 Animals and things
had to be referred as
had to be referred as
is not a proper noun, it can be used only as a pronoun.
 Refer to Sec II. 2. Number 
2. Misplaced Modifiers
If a sentence begins with a modifying phrase that is followed by a comma, makesure the noun or pronoun right next to comma should be what the phrase isreferring to.E.g.Coming out of the department store, Johns wallet was stolen.Error:Was the wallet coming out of department store? No.E.g. On leaving the department store, John’s wallet was stolen.Error: Same error E.g.Frail and weak, the heavy wagon could not be budged by the old horse.Error: Is the heavy wagon frail and weak? NoE.g.An organization long devoted to cause of justice, the mayor awarded amedal to American Civil Liberties union.Error: Looks like mayor is the organization.E.g.Although not quite as liquid investment as a money-market account,financial experts recommend a certificate of deposit for its high yield.Error: Misplaced phrase: financial expertsE.g.Before designing a park, the public must be considered.Error: The public is not going to design the park. Before designing the park, thearchitect must consider the public is -correct.
3. Subject Verb Agreement
(Refer to Sec II.10 Subject Verb Agreement)
E.g.The number of arrests of drunken drivers are increasing every year Error: Subject is singular whereas verb is plural. Subject verb agreement1
The number of arrests of drunken drivers is increasing every year is-correct Note: Also while checking for subject/verb agreement, note that the subjectdoesn’t always appear before the verbE.g.Dominating the New York skyline is the Empire State Building andthe Chrysler Building- incorrectDominating the New York skyline
the Empire State Buildingand the Chrysler Building- -correct
4. Idiomatic Errors
(Refer to Sec. II.6 Common Idioms)
E.g.Many political insiders now believe that the dissension in congress over health issues decreases the likelihood for significance action being takenthis year to combat the rising costs of health care.Error: ‘Likelihood for’ is an unidiomatic expression ‘likelihood that’ is correct.E.g. There is little doubt that large corporations are indebted for the smallcompanies that broke new ground in lased optics.Error:
 Indebted for 
is incorrect.
 Indebted to
is the correct usage.Each idiom has its own usage. There is no particular rule as such.
5. Parallel Construction
There are two kinds of sentences that test the parallel construction. The first one isa sentence that contains a list, or has a series of actions set off from one another  by commas.E.g. …to ….to ….to The second kind is a sentence that’s divided into parts. All the parts must have parallel types of verbiageE.g. ate _____, slept ____, drank ____ Bad construction might look like:…to ____, _____ …ate _____, sleep _____, drank ____.I like to swim, to run, and to dance. – CorrectI like to swim, run, and dance. CorrectI like to swim, run, and to dance.– IncorrectI like to swim, to run, and dance.– Incorrect
6. Apples and Oranges
When the sentence compares two actions/items, things, can they really becompared?E.g.The people in my office are smarter than other officesError: The sentence compares
other offices
, literally. This iswrong. Two dissimilar things cannot be compared.2
Usually, the problem is with hidden comparison where two things or actions arecompared, but another two items or actions are intertwined and you lose thecomparison relationship.E.g. Synthetic oils burn less efficiently than natural oils.Error:In this case, what needs to be compared is how well each oils burn,and not the oils themselves.
Synthetic oils burn less efficiently thannatural oils burn
Synthetic oils burn less efficiently than donatural oils
is correct3

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