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Description on Inverter Full

Description on Inverter Full

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Published by sani musa

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Published by: sani musa on Jun 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/04/2013

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DESCRIPTION OF THE INVERTER COMPONENT BLOCK TO BLOCK 
Fig. 1shows the block diagram of the Inverter System. The unit has amodular structure with each item in a block representing circuit breadand the arrow head in the block diagram shows signal or power flow. Adescription of each block now follows:(1). Voltage Regulator block: the Inverter DC bus is either 24V or 48Vwhile the main control cirvuit requires a 12V supply. This block istherefore implim\ented using a 1812 linear regulator IC or a series passregulator built using a Zener diode and bipolar transistor.(2). Main control/Oscillation circuit: this unit is based on the SG 3524ppulsemith modulated IC in which an RC network establishes the power frequency of 50HZ while a reference voltage of 5.0V and a feed backinput enables a good control over the output voltage. This unitalternately switches the two legs of the inverter at interval of 10msec.(3). Solar PV array: the solar PV array is used as an alternate source for charging the batteries. A simple relay contact separates the DC bus fromthe PC output; but sometime a charge controller in the form or a DC-DCconverter with a maximum power point tracking may be used. The solar RV array is becoming more popular in residential inverter units andstreet lighting application as a result of the regular power failure seen inNigeria presently. The sizing for the PV array is usually limited by theclients purse, but for very rich cooperate bodies a 100W module cancater for a 24VX 100AH battery bank
 
4.The dc bus 24v/48v: The dc bus is made up of heavy dutystorage batteries. Different types of batteries may be used inthe battery pool, but each bank of a string corrected batteries(those connected in series) must be of the same type andampere hour rating. The sizing of the battery pool dependson the average system load, permissible depth of batterydischarge and the required backup period in hours. For example suppose an average load of 300w is to besustained for 10 hrs using a flooded battery which permits tobe sustained of discharge using rated 12v x 100AH. Howmany batteries are required.
etofDisch PerUnitDep XAmperHrsX battryVolt   Hrs powerXNobatteries No
arg..
=
batteries xVx x
55.010012 10300
==
5.
MOSFET Switch Circuitry: Mosfets are used for switchingthe pulses to the isolating two winding transformer. Sincethese are voltage switching devices they are easier to switchto saturation then bipolar transistor and the design is asfollows: for battery voltage up to 24v dc I use IRF150Mosfets which have the following important switchingparameters. Max reverse voltage 100v, max drain current40A. Rd
on
0.04hm for example suppose such devices arerequired to construct 600w inverter how many mosfetsshould be connected in parallel per leg? Since the inverter power rating is 600w.current draw on a 24v battery bank is
 Avoltage pwer 
2524600
===
.
 
Max current for the IRFP150 = 40A but for reliable operationthis is clade down to 25% which is 40x0.25 =10A. Therefore therequired no. mosfets is
35.2 1025
===
icecurrentdevncurrentdow
Thus to design such an inverter we require 3 MOSFETS per leg anda total of 2x3 = 6MOSFETS in the inverter circuit.
6)The two windings center tap transformer 
This transformer receives at its input the pulses from theMOSFETS at 24V and deliver at its output 220V alternatingvoltage at 50Hz frequency. The two separate windings ensuregalvanic isolation of the high voltage circuits from the battery andcontrol circuits and this is a plus for safety consideration. It is alsopossible for a switched 230V mains voltage at the 220V windingsto reverse charge the battery bank using the centre tap at the 10wvoltage winding and the internal drain source free wheelingdiodes.
7)AC output CT and overloading detection circuit
This unit consists of a two winding current transformer (CT) whichmeasures by induction the inverter output AC current. The CToutput which is in the form of an AC voltage is rectified filtered andcompared with a reference voltage, and when it is above a presetvalue the signal from this unit disables the supply of DC current tothe main control/oscillation circuit. Such an event will leave behindan LED message.

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