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Feedback Mechanisms and Models of Speech Production

Feedback Mechanisms and Models of Speech Production

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Published by Heriberto Rangel
Feedback Mechanisms and Models of Speech Production By Lawrence J. Raphael; in Speech Science Primer
Feedback Mechanisms and Models of Speech Production By Lawrence J. Raphael; in Speech Science Primer

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Published by: Heriberto Rangel on Sep 05, 2013
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08/17/2014

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FeedbackMechanismsandModelsofSpeechProduction
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FEEDBACKMECHANISMSINSPEECH
Speechscientistsareinterestedinhowaspeakercontrolstheproductionofspeech.Towhatdegreedoesthespeakermonitorhisactions,andtowhatdegreeandunderwhatsituationsmightheproducespeechwithlittleornoinformationonhowheisproceeding?Toanswerthisquestion,wemustcon-siderthescienceofself-regulatingmachines,called
cybernetics.
Theterm,coinedbyNor-bertWiener,fromtheGreekwordmean-ing"steersman,"referstothestudyofsys-temsthatcontrolthemselvesonthebasisoftheiractualperformanceratherthanbeingcontrolledbyanexternaloperatorwhocomparesthesystem'sperformancewiththeperformanceexpectedofit.Ather-mostatthatturnsoffthefurnacewhenthetemperaturereachesaspecifiedvalueisanexampleofa
seruomechanism,
theengineer-ingtermforaself-regulatingmachine.
If
adevicecontrollingthetemperatureinyourhomewerenotaservomechanism,youwouldhavetoconsultathermometerperi-odicallyandmaketherequiredadjustmentsaccordingtoyourpreference.
In
aservomechanism,theoutputofadeviceisfedbacktoapointinthesystemwherethefeedbackinformationmaybeusedtoadjustthecontinuingperformance.Whentheinformationthatisfedbackin-dicatesthatperformanceiswithinthepre-scribedlimitsandshouldbecontinuedunchanged,wecallthefeedback
positive.
Iftheinformationindicatesthatperformanceisoutsidetheprescribedlimits(e.g.,thatanerrorhasbeenmade)andthatachangeinperformanceisrequired,wecallthe
167
 
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SPEECHSCIENCEPRIMER
feedback
negative.
Systemsoperatingunderfeedbackcontrolaredescribedas
closedloop
systems.Figure8.1contrasts
openloop
andclosedloopsystemsinmachinesandinbi-ologicorganisms.Thedifferencebetweenthemisthatinopenloopsystems,theout-putispreprogrammedanddoesnotre-quirefeedback,whereasinclosedloopsys-tems,theperformanceofthesystemisfedbacktobematchedwiththeprogramoIfthereisadiscrepancybetweentheprogramandtheperformance,adjustmentsaremadetobringtheperformanceinlinewiththeprogramoTheproductionofspeechrequiresthesimultaneousandcoordinateduseofrespi-ratory,phonatory,andarticulatorymecha-nisms,anactivitysocomplexthatsomemethodoffeedbackcontrolseemslikely.Atleastfourkindsofinformationareavail-abletoaspeakerthatcouldbeusedinfeedbackcontrol:auditory,tactile,propri-oceptive,andcentralneuralfeedback.
BA
AuditoryFeedback
Simplyput,auditoryfeedbackishearingourownspeech.Unlikethesolelyair-conductedacousticsignalthatourlisten-ershear,auditoryfeedbackisbothair-andbone-conducted.Becauseagreatdealofourownspeechisconductedtoourhear-ingmechanismbywayofthebonesintheskullthatemphasizelowfrequencies,we
JIHGFEDCBA
OPENLOOPSYSTEMS
donotsoundtoourselvesthewaywesoundtoothers.Thisiswhyspeakersareoftensurprisedatwhattheyhearwhenataperecordingoftheirspeechisplayedbacktothem.lnterestintheroleoffeedbackmecha-nismsinthecontrolofspeechwasarousedbyanaccidentaldiscoverymadebyaNewJerseyengineer,BernardLee,in1950.Whilehewasrecordinghimselfonatape
recorder,
henoticedthatundersomecir-cumstances,theauditoryfeedbackfromhisownspeechcouldmakehimdisfluent.Inataperecorder,therecordheadordi-narilyprecedestheplaybackhead,asdia-grammedinFigure8.2.Ifaspeakerlistenstohisownpreviouslyrecordedspeechthroughaheadsetpluggedintotheplay-backhead,whichprovidesaslighttimedelay,fluentspeechsometimesbecomesdisfluent,syllablesarerepeated,orinap-propriatelyprolonged.Itisalsotruethatdisfluentspeakers,suchasstutterers,maybecomemorefluentundersuchconditions~of
delayedauditoryfiedback
(DAF).TheDAF~effectcannowbeproducedbycomputer-recordedandcomputer-processedspeechinwhichboththerecordingandtheamountofdelayaredigitallycontrolled.ThisDAFeffectprovokedmuchexcite-mentandaflurryofstudiesinthe1950s.TheDAFeffectwasinterpretedbymanyasproofthatspeechactsasaservomech-anism,withauditoryfeedbackasthechief
CLOSEDLOOPSYSTEMSMachines:Input---~Amplifier-v-e-Motor---~OutputInput-Amplifier-Motor~Output
~
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Biologicalorganisms:Centralnervoussystem
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SensationsMotoractivityCentralnervoussystem
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Sensations_~oractivity
Feed
back
FIGURE
8.1Openandclosedloopcontrolformachinesandbiologicsystems.

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