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2007 PNAS Cytoskeletal-Dynamics

2007 PNAS Cytoskeletal-Dynamics

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Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte
Ju Li*, George Lykotrafitis
, Ming Dao
, and Subra Suresh
†‡§
*Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; and
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and
Division of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139Communicated by L. B. Freund, Brown University, Providence, RI, January 10, 2007 (received for review November 15, 2006)
Thehumanerythrocyte(redbloodcell,RBC)demonstratesextraor-dinaryabilitytoundergoreversiblelargedeformationandfluidity.Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized onthe basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that com-prises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipidmembrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network hasbeen postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reor-ganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable proteinassociations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemicalagents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. Wedemonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on themetabolic energy influx. The solid network’s plastic deformationalso manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strainrate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolvelong-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBCelasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and defor-mation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanisticinsights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cy-toskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC mem-branelossandshapechangeinthecontextofhereditaryhemolyticdisorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis.
cytoskeleton remodeling
computer simulation
fluidization
plasticity
spectrin–actin dissociation
D
uring its 120-day life span, a red blood cell (RBC) circulatesa million times in human body, often squeezing throughnarrow capillaries. The erythrocyte’s remarkable mechanicalproperties originate from the unique architecture of its cell wall, which is the main load bearing component as there are no stressfibers inside the cell. The cell wall comprises a spectrin tetramernetwork tethered to a phospholipid bilayer (1, 2). It is veryflexible, and yet resilient enough to recover the biconcave shape whenever the cell is quiescent (see Fig. 1). It has been proposedthat the spectrin network connectivity is not fixed and canexperience extensive remodeling as the RBC undergoes largedeformation. Experiments show that, under physiological con-ditions, the spectrin tetramers in an unstressed intact cell wallexist in rapid dynamic equilibrium with the dimers, and thatshear-induced cell wall deformation displaces the balance infavor of the dimers (3). Here, the cell wall behaves as a weakelastic solid at low strain levels, whereas it can be fluidizedbeyond a certain level of shear deformation, similar to softmatter such as emulsions and colloidal pastes (4, 5). Uponunloading, the dynamic stability is shifted toward tetramers andthe stiffness of the cell wall increases. Experiments also suggestthat cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated by biochemicalfactors such as Ca
2
and ATP (adenosine 5
-triphosphate)concentrations (6, 7). It has been postulated that phosphoryla-tion affects spectrin–actin binding and produces changes in theshapeanddeformabilityofhumanRBC(8–11);thisisequivalentto the injection of metabolic energy specifically to spectrin–actin junctions, thereby inducing local rupture between actin andspectrin. Prior analytical modeling addressed the impact of  ATP-induced cytoskeletal defects arising from spectrin–actindissociation on RBC shape and membrane fluctuation (12). Activation of these biochemical processes can result in lowerconnectivity and, consequently, a softer or even fluidized net- work. Therefore, the confluence of mechanical strain energy,nonspecific thermal fluctuation energy, and specific biochemicalactivation energy fundamentally influences the behavior of thecytoskeleton and the membrane tethered to it.Optical tweezers (OT) experiments (13, 14) have shown that themembrane with cytoskeletal attachment can sustain significantshear, with an estimated shear modulus
4–10
N/m. Indeed,thein-planeshearenergythatanRBCcanapparentlystoreintheseOT experiments is
200 pN
8
m/2
5,000 eV, which farexceeds the total bending energy it stores (
8

50 eV), forbending modulus
2
10
19
J (15). Classic Canham–Helfrichexplanation of the biconcave equilibrium shape of erythrocyte (16,17) requires minimization of total bending energy only, withoutconsidering the much larger in-plane shear energy. Equilibriumshape calculations with inclusion of in-plane energies, at bothcontinuum (14, 18) and discrete spectrin network (14, 19) levels,thus exhibit a seemingly paradoxical behavior. At the experimentalrange of 
and
values, the biconcave equilibrium shape is rarelyobtained in numerical simulations without careful tuning of thestress-free reference state for the in-plane energy.Basedonextensiveparametricstudies,thefollowingmechanistichypothesis was proposed (14) to resolve the paradox. In an ideal
Author contributions: J.L., G.L., M.D., and S.S. designed research, performed research,analyzed data, and wrote the paper.The authors declare no conflict of interest.Abbreviations: OT, optical tweezer; CD, cytoskeletal dynamics.
§
To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ssuresh@mit.eduThis article contains supporting information online atwww.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/ 0700257104/DC1.© 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Fig. 1.
An experimental
in vitro
demonstration of the ‘‘fluidization’’ of ahealthyhumanRBCthroughamicrofluidicchannelatroomtemperature.Theseries of images show the shape of an RBC as it is squeezed through a 4
m
4
m channel made of polydimethyloxysilane (PDMS), under a pressure dif-ferentialof1.5mmofwater.Notetherecoveryofshapeuponegressfromthechannel. Images
a
,
b
,
c
, and
were taken at relative times of 0, 0.4, 0.8, and1.4 s, respectively.
www.pnas.org
cgi
doi
10.1073
pnas.0700257104 PNAS
March 20, 2007
vol. 104
no. 12
4937–4942
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limit, for any RBC shape, the cytoskeleton always undergoesremodeling in topological connectivity at a certain rate to relax itsin-plane shear elastic energy to zero. Therefore in considering theequilibrium shape of an RBC, one does not need to account for thein-plane shear energy, even though in OT experiments it can beinjected temporarily into the cytoskeleton. The remodeling processhas been studied heuristically in (14) by simulating simple liquidsconfined on a surface and interacting via the Lennard–Jones orStillinger–Weber potentials (20). This produces cytoskeleton thatappears similar to atomic force microscopy scans (21–23), akin toreverse Monte Carlo (24) modeling. Despite these considerations,detailed simulations of spectrin network dynamics promoting plas-ticity and fluidization of RBC are presently unavailable.In this paper, a cytoskeletal dynamics (CD) simulation frame- work is developed to study the RBC spectrin network remodelingprocess and fluidization. The framework comprises the followingkey ingredients: (
i
) a minimal representation of the cytoskeletongeometry that can self-organize and dynamically evolve, and (
ii
)mechanisms for nonthermal energies such as the strain energy orspecific biochemical energy to influence and regulate structuralevolution. By abstracting out many details, such a cytoskeletaldynamicssimulationprovidesdetailedmechanisticinsightsintothemechanicsandphysicsofRBCdeformation.ThismodelcouldthenbeusedinstudyingRBCswithcytoskeletaldefectswhicharetypicalin blood disorders such as hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocy-tosis (25, 26). The present work thus seeks to provide a significantadvance over previous models that were either formulated at thecontinuum scale (18), thereby ignoring the discrete cytoskeletalstructure,orthatassumedafixedcytoskeletonconnectivity(14,19,27–30),therebyusefulonlytostudyelasticcelldeformationwithoutany dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling due to mechanical, thermal,or chemical driving forces.
Computational Model
The erythrocyte cell wall consists of a lipid bilayer, cytoskeletonnetwork, and integral membrane proteins. The intramembraneproteins band-3 and glycophorin tether the cytoskeleton net- work to the bilayer via additional binding proteins (e.g., ankyrinand4.1).AschematicrepresentationisshowninFig.2
 a
.Spectrinis a protein tetramer formed by head-to-head association of twoidentical heterodimers (31). Each heterodimer has an
-chain, which has 22 triple-helical segments, and a
-chain, which has 17triple-helicalsegments.Aminimalisticrepresentationofspectrinis therefore chosen to be
S
39 spherical beads (B in Fig. 2
 b
)connected by
S
1 unbreakable springs. The spring potential,
BB
(
 r 
)
 k
0
(
 r 
 r 
0
)
2
 /2, is plotted as the magenta curve in Fig. 2
 c
, with equilibrium distance
0
L
max
 /(
S
1), where
L
max
is thecontour length of the spectrin (chosen to be 200 nm). Thus,
0
5.26 nm. The spring constant
k
0
is chosen later. Beads that arenot topologically connected on the chain, or are on differentchains, repel each other sterically. Their interaction potential istakentobesimply
BB
(
 r 
)
 H 
(
 r 
0
 r 
),shownastheblackdashcurvein Fig. 2
 c
, where
(
 x
) is the Heaviside step function. Among the
S
beads of a spectrin chain, there are two specialbeads colored in green in Fig. 2
 b
that represent the free ends. Theycan bind noncovalently to junction complexes (2), composed of ashort actin proto-filament and protein band 4.1. Experimentsindicate that, without protein 4.1, spectrin only binds weakly toactin,withequilibriumassociationconstant
 K 
1
5
10
3
M
1
.With4.1, however, strong binding occurs, forming ternary complexes with equilibrium constant
2
1
10
12
M
1
(32). A separate
Fig. 2.
Coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics computer simulation. (
a
) Schematic of cytoskeleton of the human RBC. (
b
) A minimal physically realistic modelwithbreakableactin–spectrininteraction.A(redsphere)representsanactinprotofilament,andB(greenandgrayspheres)representsaspectrinsegment.Onlythetwoendingspectrinunits(greenspheres)ofaspectrinchaincanbindtoA.(
c
)InteractionpotentialsbetweenA–A(stericrepulsion),A–B
end
(Lennard–Jonespotential), A–B
mid
(steric repulsion), B–B[1] (spring potential between nearest neighbor spectrin units), and B–B[2] (steric repulsion between any other spectrinunits). B
mid
represents a nonending spectrin unit, and B
end
represents an ending spectrin unit. Note that A–B
end
forms breakable linkage. (
) Lipid membraneintroduces additional effective repulsion between A–A (12), modeled by a linear potential with cutoff.
4938
www.pnas.org
cgi
doi
10.1073
pnas.0700257104 Li
et al.
 
measurementindicatedthattheequilibriumassociationconstantof protein 4.1 with actin itself is
3
1
10
7
M
1
(33). In theschematicofthesimulationmodel,thelargeredbead(AinFig.2
 b
)denotesthejunctioncomplex.Theterminalgreenbeadsofspectrinare attracted to A via the Lennard–Jones potential,
 AB
(
 r 
)
4
((
 
 /
 r 
)
12
(
 
 /
 r 
)
6
), plotted as the green curve in Fig. 2c. The A–Bassociation energy
is chosen to be 14 kcal/mol or 0.6 eV. Thecharacteristic interaction length scale
 
, on the other hand, ischosen so that the equilibrium A–B distance 2
1/6
 
is precisely 2
 r 
0
.The ‘‘capture radius’’ of A–B attraction is
20 nm (Fig. 2
 c
). Thecapture diameter is therefore
40 nm, which matches the actualactin proto-filament length of 
35 nm. To eliminate a free param-eter,
 k
0
ischosentobeidenticaltothecurvatureof 
 AB
(
 r 
)atitswellbottom,
k
0
36 (2)
2/3
 
2
. The molecular mass of a spectrintetramer is almost 1,000 kDa (1). Thus, the B beads are chosen tohave a mass of 1,000/
S
kDa each. The mass of A bead is chosen tobe 121 kDa, as the sum of the masses of actin proto-filament andband 4.1 (1).The novelty of this model over prior spectrin-based simulations(14, 19, 27–30) is that the A–B association is breakable, as well asreformable, with the network topology changing dynamically. Un-der increasing tensile force, the A–B association breaks when theirdistancereachestheinflexionpointof 
 AB
(
 r 
),
 r 
inflexion
(26/7)
1/6
 
,indicated as the red circle in Fig. 2
 c
. This corresponds to 10.9%bondstrainand24.9pNforce.AsaturationeffectexistsfortheA–Baffinity because most of the actin proto-filaments have, at most, sixslots to hook up with spectrin ends (via band 4.1) (30). This isimplemented in the simulation quite naturally as follows. Theattractive part of the Lennard–Jones potential,
4
(
 
 /
 r 
)
6
, is turnedonforanendingB,ifandonlyiftherearelessthansixotherendingBsalreadywithintheinflexionradius
 r 
inflexion
.Inotherwords,whensix ending Bs are already associated with A (judged by theirdistances to that A), all other ending Bs only see the repulsive partof the potential 4
(
 
 /
 r 
)
12
.Nonending Bs have only steric repulsion with A, taken to besimply
BB
(
 r 
 r 
0
)
 H 
(2
 r 
0
 r 
), shown as the red dash curve in Fig. 2
 c
.Similarly, any two As would repel each other at short range with
BB
(
 r 
2
 r 
0
)
 H 
(3
 r 
0
), shown as the blue dash curve. Thiscytoskeletal interaction potential model has the maximum simplic-ity in terms of choice of parameters. Essentially, once the A–Bassociation energy
is known, there are no free parameters tochoose.The lipid bilayer exerts additional forces on cytoskeleton. Thefluid-like lipid bilayer is slightly crumpled at equilibrium (12) (seeFig. 2
 d
) pinned by the junction complexes (34), and it exerts aneffective repulsion between two neighboring junction complexes. Itcanbeshownthattherepulsiveforceduetoabentelasticcylindricalshell is constant with respect to end-to-end distance, until the shellis fully straightened out. To model this effect, we add an additionalrepulsive potential between pairs of As that are nearest neighbors
nearestA-A
(
 r 
)
4

bare membrane
(R
cut
 r 
)3R
cut
 H 
 R
cut
,
[1]
 where
R
cut
is the distance at which the membrane becomes flat.We take
R
cut
106.1 nm, which is 20% larger than the thermallyaveraged A–A distance, chosen to be
R
0
88.4 nm. With theestimated bare membrane bending modulus
bare membrane
2
10
20
J (12),
0.36, so that the pressure of the entire systemis nearly zero at
300 K and
R
0
88.4 nm. A and B are also confined vertically by the lipid bilayer. Softharmonic confinement potentials
confine
(
 z
)
k
confine
 z
2
 /2 areused in the
z
direction to mimic this effect without explicitlysimulating the fluid bilayer. Because the junction complex isattached to the bilayer, A’s confinement potential is in both
 z
and –
 z
directions (
confine
(
 z
)), whereas B is confined on the
 z
side only (
confine
(
 z
)
 H 
(
 z
)). In other words, the spectrin chain canfreely swing down, but will be hampered when swinging up. Thestiffness of both confinement potentials are quite arbitrarilychosen to be
k
confine
0.1
 k
0
.We perform 3D coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulationsgoverned by the aforementioned potentials. Its fundamental timescale (chain oscillations) is at the nanosecond level, and it is typicalfor a whole CD simulation run to cover a few microseconds. TheBerendsen thermostat (35) is used to control the system’s temper-ature, and the instantaneous stress tensor
 
ij
is calculated by usingthe Virial formula (36). Hydrodynamic interactions (37) are ig-nored [seesupporting information (SI)
Text
]. We begin with theconfiguration in Fig. 2
 b
that is a perfect triangular network in aperiodic supercell, containing 7
8
56 junction complexes, 168chains, and 6,552 spectrin beads, spanning an area
1.5
m
1.5
m at
0 K. Although discrete spectrin-based whole-cellsimulations have been performed before (14), and it is not out of the question even for the present cytoskeletal dynamics model, it ismuch more appealing to begin with a study of some unit processesin a representative area element.
Results
ChemicallyInducedSpectrin–ActinDissociation.
Startingwithperfecttriangular network at
0 K, where A–A nearest-neighbordistance is
L
max
2
7/6
 
221 nm, the network is gradually heated while maintaining the internal pressure near zero. As expected, thesystem shrinks because of entropic elasticity, to an average nearest-neighbor A–A distance of 88 nm at
300 K and total area
0.6
m
0.6
m (Fig. 3
 a
). The vertical fluctuations of spectrin beadsare
40nm.Thetopologyofnetworkremainsnearlyperfectat
300 K. The mean degree of the network
 d
is taken to be theaverage number of spectrin ends attached to a junction complex.
 d
6 if the network topology is perfect. Upon further heating,broken-link, degree-5 defects are spontaneously created (12).Fixing
300 K, we then apply simple shear to the supercell with strain rate
 
˙
3
10
5
per s, where
 
is the engineering shearstrain. Final sheared network configuration is shown in Fig. 3
 b
, andtheshearstressversusshearstraincurveisplottedinFig.3
 c
.Linearelastic shear modulus
0
10
N/m agrees well with literature values from OT and micropipette aspiration experiments (13, 14).Using the worm-like chain model for the spectrin molecule (14),this
0
corresponds to a persistence length of 
p
6 nm, which isclose to the B bead diameter (5.26 nm). This numerical agreement
Fig. 3.
CD simulations with only mechanical energy input. (
a
) Snapshot ofthe equilibrium network structure at 300 K, top view and side view. (
b
)Snapshotofthesheared(
 
1)networkstructureat300K,topview.(
c
)Shearstress-strain response at strain rate
 
˙
3
10
5
per s.
Li
et al.
PNAS
March 20, 2007
vol. 104
no. 12
4939
      B      I      O      P      H      Y      S      I      C      S

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