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DHCP Server

DHCP Server

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Published by johnsongrey

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Published by: johnsongrey on Jun 19, 2009
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06/07/2010

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The DHCP server assigns a client an IP address taken from a predefined scope for a given amount of time. If anIP address is required for longer than the lease has been set for, the client must request an extension before thelease expires. If the client has not requested an extension on the lease time, the IP address will be consideredfree and can be assigned to another client. If the user wishes to change IP address then they can do so by typing"ipconfig /release", followed by "ipconfig /renew" in the command prompt. This will remove the current IPaddress and request a new one. Reservations can be defined on the DHCP server to allow certain clients to havetheir own IP address (this will be discussed a little later on). Addresses can be reserved for a MAC address or ahost name so these clients will have a fixed IP address that is configured automatically. Most Internet ServiceProviders use DHCP to assign new IP addresses to client computers when a customer connects to the internet -this simplifies things at user level.The above diagram diplays a simple structure consisting of a DHCP server and a number of client computers ona network.The DHCP Server itself contains an IP Address Database which holds all the IP addresses available for distribution. If the client (a member of the network with a Windows 2000 Professional/XP operating system, for example) has "obtain an IP address automatically" enabled in TCP/IP settings, then it is able to receive an IPaddress from the DHCP server.
Setting up a DHCP Server
This will serve as a step-by-step guide on how to setup a DHCP server.Installing the DHCP server is made quite easy in Windows 2003. By using the "Manage your server" wizard,you are able to enter the details you require and have the wizard set the basics for you. Open to "Manage your server" wizard, select the DHCP server option for the list of server roles and press Next.You will be asked to enter the name and description of your scope.Scope: A scope is a collection of IP addresses for computers on a subnet that use DHCP.
 
The next window will ask you to define the range of addresses that the scope will distribute across the network and the subnet mask for the IP address. Enter the appropriate details and click next.You are shown a window in which you must add any exclusions to the range of IP addresses you specified in the previous window. If for example, the IP address 10.0.0.150 is that of the company router then you won't wantthe DHCP server to be able to distribute that address as well. In this example I have excluded a range of IPaddresses, 10.0.0.100 to 10.0.0.110, and a single address, 10.0.0.150. In this case, eleven IP's will be reservedand not distributed amongst the network clients.
 
It is now time to set the lease duration for how long a client can use an IP address assigned to it from this scope.It is recommended to add longer leases for a fixed network (in the office for example) and shorter leases for remote connections or laptop computers. In this example I have set a lease duration of twelve hours since thenetwork clients would be a fixed desktop computer in a local office and the usual working time is eight hours.You are given a choice of whether or not you wish to configure the DHCP options for the scope now or later. If you choose Yes then the upcoming screenshots will be of use to you. Choosing No will allow you to configurethese options at a later stage.

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