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Testing

Testing

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Published by Md.Milon Hossain

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Published by: Md.Milon Hossain on Jun 20, 2009
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05/19/2011

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FIBRE TESTINGFIBRE ELONGATION:There are three types of elongationPermanent elongation: the length which extended during loading did notrecover during relaxationElastic elongation:The extensions through which the fibres does returnBreaking elongation:the maximum extension at which the yarn breaksi.e.permanent and elastic elongation together Elongation is specified as a percentage of the starting length. The elastic elongation is of deceisiveimportance, since textile products without elasticity would hardly be usable.They must be able to deforme, In order to withstand high loading, but theymust also return to shatpe. The greater resistance to creasefor wool compared to cotton arises, from the difference in their elongation.For cotton it is 6 -10% and for wool it is aroun 25 - 45%. For normal textilegoods, higher elongation are neither necessary nor desirable. They make processing in the spinning mill more difficult, especially in drawingoperations.FIBRE RIGIDITY:The Torsional rigidity of a fibre may be defined as the torque or twistingforce required to twist 1 cm length of the fibre through 360 degrees and is proportional to the product of the modulus of rigidity and square of the areaof cross-section, the constant of proportionality being dependent upon theshape of the cross-section of the fibre. The torsional rigidity of cotton hastherefore been found to be very much dependent upon the gravimetricfineness of the fibres. As the rigidity of fibres is sensitive to the relativehumidity of the surrounding atmosphere, it is essential that the tests arecarried out in a conditional room where the relativehumidity is kept constant.THE SLENDERNESS RATIO:Fibre stiffness plays a significant role mainly when rolling, revolving,twisting movements are involved. A fibre which is too stiff has difficultyadapting to the movements. It is difficult to get bound into the yarn, whichresults in higher hairiness. Fibres which are not stiff enough have too littlespringiness. They do not return to shape after deformation. They have nolongitudinal resistance. In most cases this leads to formation of neps. Fibrestiffness is dependent upon fibre substance and also upon the relationship between fibre length and fibre fineness. Fibres having the same structurewill be stiffer, the shorter they are. The slendernesss ratio can serve as ameasure of stiffness,
 
slender ratio = fibre length /fibre diameter Since the fibres must wind as they are bound-in during yarn formation in thering spinning machine, the slenderness ratio also determines to some extentwhere the fibres will finish up.fine and/or long fibres in the middle coarseand/or short fibres at the yarn periphery.TRASH CONTENT:In additon to usuable fibres, cotton stock contains foreign matter of variouskinds. This foreign material can lead to extreme disturbances during processing. Trash affects yarn and fabric quality. Cottons with two differenttrash contents should not be mixed together, as it will lead to processingdifficulties. Optimising process paramters will be of great difficulty under this situation, therefore it is a must to know the amount of trash and the typeof trash before deciding the mixing.SHIRLEY TRASH ANLAYSER:A popular trash measuring device is the Shirley Analyser, which separatestrash and foreign matter from lint by mechanical methods. The result is anexpression of trash as a percentage of the combined weight of trash and lintof a sample.This instrument is usedto give the exact value of waste figures and also the proportion of cleancotton and trash in the materialto select the proper processing sequence based upon the trash contentto assess the cleaning efficiency of each machineto determine the loss of good fibre in the sequence of opening and cleaning.Stricter sliver quality requirements led to the gradual evolution of openingand cleaning machinery leading to a situation where blow room and cardingmachinery were designed to remove exclusively certain specific types of trash particles. This necessitated the segregation of the trash in the cottonsample to different grades determined by their size. This was achieved in theinstruments like the Trash Separator and the Micro Dust Trash Analysewhich could be considered as modified versions of the Shirley Analyser.The high volume instruments introduced the concept of optical methods of trash measurement which utilised video scanning trash-meters to identifyareas darker than normal on a cotton sample surface. Here, the trash contentwas expressed as the percentage area covered by the trash particles.However in such methods, comparability with the conventional methodcould not be established in view of the non-uniform distribution of trash in agiven cotton sample and the relatively smaller sample size to determine such
 
a parameter. Consequently, it is yet to establish any significant name in theindustry.RAW MATERIAL AS A FACTOR AFFECTING SPINNING:Fineness determines how many fibres are present in the cross-section of ayarn of particular linear density. 30 to 50 fibres are needed minimum to produce a yarn fibre fineness influencesspinning limityarn strengthyarn evennessyarn fullnessdrape of the fabriclustrehandle productivity productivity is influenced by the end breakage rate and twist per inchrequired in the yarnImmature fibres(unripe fibres) have neither adequate strength nor adequatelongitudinal siffness. They therefore lead to the following,loss of yarn strengthneppinesshigh proportion of short fibresvarying dyeability processing difficulties at the card and blowroomFibre length is one among the most important characteristics. It influncesspinning limityarn strengthhandle of the productlustre of the productyarn hairiness productivityIt can be assumed that fibres of under 4 - 5 mm will be lost in processing(aswaste and fly). fibres upto about 12 - 15 mm do not contribute to strength but only to fullness of the yarn. But fibres above these lengths produce theother positive characteristics in the yarn.The proportion of short fibres has extremely great influence on the following parametersspinning limityarn strengthhandle of the productlustre of the product

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