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become corporations and governments. In the late middle ages, large seed firms establishedwhich now control most of the economy of the agricultural industry. The question arises, “Whatwould be the effect of patenting plants on the farmers as well as the economy of United States of America?” In order to provide an answer to this question, some of the major facts and studies inthis regard need to be analyzed. Granting patents on plants excludes anyone else from making,selling or distributing which is obviously beneficial to the multinational companies instead of thecommon farmers.For the majority, the ethical justification of patenting plants is a question of social ethics. It is notone involving the consideration of plants for their own sake and therefore not the object of discussion either. For a minority, the patenting of plants as such is morally not allowed andcontradicts the dignity of living beings with respect to plants.A plant patent lasts for 20 years from the date of filing the patent application and gives theinventor the right to exclude others from asexually reproducing, selling, or using the plant soreproduced. This protection is limited to a plant under the following conditions:
A living plant organism which expresses a set of characteristics determined by its single,genetic makeup, which can be duplicated through asexual reproduction, but which can nototherwise be "made" or "manufactured."
Sports, mutants, hybrids, and transformed plants are comprehended; sports or mutants may be spontaneous or induced. Hybrids may be natural, from a planned breeding program, or somatic in source. While natural plant mutants might have naturally occurred, they musthave been discovered in a cultivated area.