JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 21, ISSUE 2, AUGUST 2013
Load balancing is a technique for distributing traffic load from the source to the destination getoptimal resource utilization, throughput. Load balancing attempts to maximize systemthroughput by migrating tasks from the overloaded nodes to other lightly loaded nodes toimprove the overall system performance. Loadbalancing is important since node with high loadswill deplete their resources quickly, thereby increasing the probability of network failure.Therefore good load balancing algorithms must be fast and should not add heavy cost, becausecomplexity of these algorithms in communication channels incurs ambiguity, causes uncertaintyin decision making. To solve this problem, artificial intelligence field such as neural networks,fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithm are suggested in this work, because they
don’t use anymathematical model of the system. Neural Network uses input-output relations of the system,Fuzzy Logic uses heuristic knowledge about the
system based on the operator experience, andgenetic algorithm is used for search and optimization , , , ,, .
2 Related Works.
Many studies have focused on developing mechanisms for the load balancing problem inmobile wireless ad hoc networks. Load-Balanced Ad Hoc Routing (LBAR) protocol is proposedin . LBAR is very similar to AODV, except that while forwarding the route request (RREQ)messages each node appends its current activity status to the RREQ. The destination uses thisextra information in order to relay the RREP message along the path with least load so that theload is evenly spread across the nodes. In , the authors propose load balancing algorithm for wireless access networks. The algorithm maintains a load-balanced backbone tree rooted at theaccess point. The access point is responsible for updating the backbone tree and informationabout load distribution is required at the access point. Also it is assumed in  that nodes havemultiple-antennas, so wireless connections between neighbors is modeled as isolated point-to- point links, which makes the topology very similar to the wired-networks. In , the authors propose a mechanism of load balancing in ad hoc wireless networks that relies on dissipation of load distribution information throughout the network. If a node is overloaded (serving more loadthan the average load in the network), then it queries it neighborhood for under loaded nodes,and transfers its load to the under loaded node. However the dissipation of load informationincreases the overhead and may cause instability.In , the authors study that how alternate path routing, which is a popular load balancingmechanism in wired networks, performs in a wireless ad hoc network. It
is observed that theinterference, caused by channel sharing, significantly reduces the performance of APR inwireless ad hoc networks. An analytical model of load distribution in multi-path routing is presented in . It is shown that the multi-path routing does not provide any benefits in ad hocnetworks, unless the number of paths is large. In  the authors show that multipath routingmay achieve significant improvement over single path routing provided the various pathsinvolved in multipath routing are sufficiently disjoint. They use the number of interfering linksexisting between the nodes of two paths as the measure of correlation between the paths andchoose the paths with minimum “interference correlation”. It is shown in  that optimum load balancing is a NP-hard problem even for a simple network topology.In Dynamic Load Aware Routing (DLAR) protocol ,, , routing load of a route has been considered as the primary route selection metric. The load of a route is defined as thesummation of the load of nodes on the route, and the load of a node is defined as the number of packets buffered in the queue of the node. To utilize the most up-to-date load information when