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Electrical Formulas Explanations

Electrical Formulas Explanations

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Electrical Formulas, Explanations
ELECTRICAL FORMULAS AND EXPLANATIONS
APPENDIX CONTENTS
HEAT.........................................................................................................................................................2Thermometer Scales...............................................................................................................................2UNITS DERIVED FROM THE BASE ELECTRICAL UNIT (AMPERE).............................................2RULES OF THUMB FOR ELECTRICAL MOTORS..............................................................................2Horsepower Revolutions Per Minute - Torque.......................................................................................3Shaft Size - Horsepower - Revolutions Per Minute................................................................................3ELECTRICAL FORMULAS.....................................................................................................................4Power......................................................................................................................................................5Parallel Circuits.......................................................................................................................................5Direct Current:........................................................................................................................................6Single Phase:...........................................................................................................................................6Three Phase............................................................................................................................................6To Find Watts..........................................................................................................................................6Capacitance (C)......................................................................................................................................7Induction (L)...........................................................................................................................................7Reactance................................................................................................................................................7Impedance (Z).........................................................................................................................................8Power factor (PF)...................................................................................................................................8TRIGONOMETRY....................................................................................................................................8POWER FACTOR CORRECTION TABLE:............................................................................................9TRANSFORMER CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................................9VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RELATIONSHIPS...................................................................................10VOLTAGE AND COIL TURN RELATIONSHIPS.................................................................................10AMPERES AND COIL TURN RELATIONSHIPS................................................................................10RESISTOR COLOR CODE....................................................................................................................10FULL-LOAD CURRENT IN AMPERES FOR DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS..................................11COMPARISON OF AC AND DC CURRENTS......................................................................................12PREFIXES USED FOR SUBDIVISIONS AND MULTIPLES OF UNITS...........................................16
Page 1 of 16
 
Electrical Formulas, Explanations
HEAT
Thermometer Scales
On the Fahrenheit (F) thermometer, the freezing point of water is
 
marked at 32 degrees on the scale, andthe boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure is marked at 212
0
. The distance between these points isdivided into 180
0
. On the Celsius © thermometer, the freezing point of water is marked at 0
0
on the scale,and the boiling point of water is marked at 100
0
.The following formulas are used for converting temperatures:3259
+     °×=
renheit  DegreesFah
( )
3295
°=
 sius DegreesCel 
UNITS DERIVED FROM THE BASE ELECTRICAL UNIT (AMPERE)
MeasurementDerived Unit of MeasurementFormula
Electrical PotentialVolt (V)
 A
=
Electrical ResistanceOhm (μ)
 A
=
 µ 
Electrical CapacitanceFarad (F)
     =
 s A F 
, s = seconds
Quantity of ElectricityCoulomb (C)
As
=
, s = seconds
Electrical InductanceHenry (H)
 AWb H 
=
Magnetic FluxWeber (Wb)
Wb Vs
RULES OF THUMB FOR ELECTRICAL MOTORS
Horsepower versus AmperesHere are some simple ways to take the mystery out of determining several important factors concerningelectric motors. For example, using the following relationships, may be useful. For three-phase motors,we find that approximately:1 hp - 575 Volts requires 1 Amp of current1hp - 460 Volts requires 1.25 Amps of current1hp - 230 Volts requires 2.50 Amps of current1hp - 2300 Volts requires 0.25 Amps of current
Page 2 of 16
 
Electrical Formulas, Explanations
The key is 1 horsepower - 1 Amp on 575 Volts. All others then become a direct ratio of this figure,
 
ie.,575/460 times 1.0 equals 1.25 A for 1 hp required on 460 V. Now, for example, with these facts at hand,you can say that a 150-hp motor on 230 V will require approximately 375 A. This is obtained as follows: 1hp on 230 V requires 2.5 A per horsepower, so you simply multiply 2.5 times 150 hp.
Horsepower Revolutions Per Minute - Torque
Torque
 
is simply a twisting force that causes rotation around a fixed point. For example, torque issomething we all experience every time we pass through a revolving door. Horsepower is what is requiredwhen we pass through the door, because we are exercising torque at a certain revolution per minute(r/min). The faster we go through the revolving door, the more horsepower is required. In this case, thetorque remains the same. In relating this concept to motors, we use this rule of thumb:1 horsepower at 1800 revolution per minute delivers 3 ft-lb of torque1 horsepower at 900 revolutions per minute delivers 6 ft-lb of torqueUsing this simple rule, we can see that a 10-hp motor at 1800 r/min delivers 30 ft-lb of torque, and a 20-hpmotor at 1800 r/min delivers 60 ft-lb of torque.In another example, a 1-hp motor at 1200 r/min delivers 4.5 ft-lb of torque. Here is how to figure this.Multiply the torque at 1800 r/min by the ratio 1800/ 1200. Torque, then, is the inverse ratio of the speed.In other words, SPEED DOWN—TORQUE UP for the same horsepower.A quick estimate for the torque of a 125-hp, 600-r/min motor can be figured by the following procedure.125 hp times 3 ft-lb equal 375 ft-lb of torque for a 125-hp motor at 1800 r/min. Now, to convert to 600rpm, multiply 375 times 1800/600 rpm or 1125 ft-lb.This gives a rule that will enable you to quickly determine the torque a motor is capable of delivering,down to 10 rpm. Below this speed, other factors enter in that must be taken into consideration.
Shaft Size - Horsepower - Revolutions Per Minute
A number to remember here is 1150. This is easy to remember, and it stands for this: A 1-inch diameter shaft can transmit 1 hp at 50 rpm. As the shaft speed goes up, so does the horsepower, and by the sameratio. Therefore, if you double the speed, you double the horsepower capacity of the shaft. However,when you double the shaft diameter, the capacity of the shaft to transmit horsepower is increased 8 times.Thus, whatever the shaft size is in inches, cube it and multiply the resultant figure by the proper speedratio, and the horsepower-transmitting ability of the shaft is determined. However, it is advisable to beconservative, so modify the results by 75% and use this resulting figure. To express this in a formula, usethe following:50
 RPM  sterInIncheShaftDiame  power ShaftHorse
×=
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