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Sieve analysis

Sieve analysis

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11/19/2013

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A H M 531The Civil Engineering Center
Objective:

Determine the particle size distribution of a soil sample byapplying the particle size analysis using the mechanicalmethod (Sieve analysis).

To obtain the coefficients of uniformity and curvature.

To draw the grain size distribution curve.
General discussion:
Particle size analysis is the process of determining the relative proportions of the differentgrain sizes that make up a given soil sample. For coarse grained soil (larger than 0.075 mm)the mechanical method of analysis is done, for grains finer than 0.075mm the Hydrometermethod is used for the analysis.For the test appliance a statistically representative sample to reality has to be used, this isobtained by taking a larger amount of the needed soil from different spots of the project understudy, and then the reduction of this sample at the lab by the method of quartering and bymeans of using the riffle box of a proper size.In the experiment we applied the mechanical method which is also known as the sieveanalysis.A sieve is an item containing squared openings of specified size, where only the particlesmaller than that size can pass through the sieve with proper orientation, sieves areconstructed of wire mesh.The test is held by stacking number of standard sieves, ranging in sizes from the largest at topto the smallest, in our experiment the sieves were stacked in the following series; 4.75 – 2 –1.18 – 0.6 – 0.3 – 0.15 – 0.075 – Pan .Then the sample is thrown into the top sieve and then the set of sieves is placed on a shakerfor a period of time.The masses retained on each sieve are measured by means of weighing machine, and fromthat the Percentage retained is measured by using the formula;And the Percent passing is measured using;From the obtained results of percentage passing, the grain size distribution curve is drawn ona semi log paper, with the percentage passing representing the ordinate and the sieve sizerepresenting the abscissa.The difference in weights of the total sample before sieving and after sieving must not exceed10% as standards specify, if the loss in mass exceeds that the test shall be repeated with adifferent sample.From the curve the coefficients of uniformity and curvature are measured using the followingformulas;
A H M 531Seive AnalysisBy: Ahmed Essam MansouThe Civil Engineering Center1Visit www.AHM531.com for more lab reports and lecture notes!

A H M 531The Civil Engineering Center
Knowing the grain size distribution has the benefit of judging the soil suitability for differentprojects, and of predicting soil-water movement. For example a uniform soil(soil consisting of a small range of size of grains) has high permeability but low strength, theopposite can be seen in a well graded soil (soil containing large range of particle sizes fromthe smallest to the largest).
Sample identification:
The sample tested had light brown color at the beginning, and it consisted from: little amountof gravel, mix of sand size and clay.
Equipments:
1.

Set of sieves (4.75, 2, 1.18, 0.6, 0.3, 0.15, 0.075)mm + Pan2.

Weighing machine.3.

A brush.4.

Riffle box.5.

Shaker
Procedures:
1.

Weighing 250g (W
1
) of the oven-dried soil sample, this sample has to berepresentative to the whole sample; this is accomplished by using the rifflebox till the desired weight is obtained.2.

The specimen is washed on sieve #200 to get rid of the grains finer that thatsieve (silts and clays), a sieve #10 is place over sieve #200 to retain coarsegrains such as gravel, in order to protect sieve #200. The washing processmust not contain any loss of the mass due to splashing. This processcontinues till the water passes through the sieve is clean!3.

The washed specimen is placed in the oven for 24 hours, and the removedand the weight is calculated. W
2
4.

After stacking the sieves in the order mentioned before the sample is placedon the top sieve, then the set of the sieves is moved to be placed on the shakerfor a period of 3 minutes.5.

The sieves are then removed from the shaker and separated carefully, everysieve is re-shacked manually over a pan to make sure that all the grains inthat sieve are larger than its size. The passed particles are moved to thesmaller sieve. The grains retained at each sieve are weighed.
A H M 531Seive AnalysisBy: Ahmed Essam MansouThe Civil Engineering Center2Visit www.AHM531.com for more lab reports and lecture notes!

A H M 531The Civil Engineering Center

Calculations:
Sample of calculation:
A H M 531Seive AnalysisBy: Ahmed Essam MansouThe Civil Engineering Center3Visit www.AHM531.com for more lab reports and lecture notes!