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TERMppr.232

TERMppr.232

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Published by: btliem01 on Jun 20, 2009
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A TERM PAPER INHORT. 232Physiology and Biochemistry of Endogenous Growth Regulators
PROLONGING SHELF LIFE AND DELAYINGRIPENING OF CITRUS BY GIBBERELLIC ACID
SUBMITTED BYALMINDA M. FERNANDEZSUBMITTED TODR. MA. LOURDES O. CEDOMarch 25, 2009
 
OUTLINE
I.IntroductionII.What is Gibberellic Acid?III.Advantages and Disadvantages of GAIV.Commercial Uses of GAa.Using GA Sprays on Navel Oranges b.Using GA Sprays on Lemonc.GA Application on Red Grapefruit and Tangerinesd.GA Application on MandarinV.Physiology of Ripening in CitrusVI.Regulation of Color Break in CitrusVII.
Citrus
Chlorophyllase Dynamics at Ethylene-Induced Fruit Color-Break VIII.ConclusionIX.References
 
INTRODUCTION
Citrus is the most economically important fruit crop in the world, is grown in developedand developing countries and certainly constitutes one of the main sources of vitamin C. There isalso an increasing demand of "high quality fresh citrus" driven by World Health Organizationrecommendations. Citrus contain the largest number of carotenoids found in any fruit and anextensive array of secondary compounds with pivotal nutritional properties such as vitamin E, pro-vitamin A, flavonoids, limonoids, polysaccharides, lignin, fiber, phenolic compounds,essential oils etc. These substances greatly contribute to the supply of anticancer agents and other nutraceutical compounds with anti-oxidant, inflammatory, cholesterol and allergic activities, allof them essential to prevent cardiovascular and degenerative diseases, thrombosis, cancer,atherosclerosis and obesity.Citrus fruits are also classified as hesperidiums, berries of very special organizationcharacterized by a juicy pulp made of vesicles within segments. Thus, the combination of thesecharacteristics suggests that the study of citrus fruit growth may reveal original regulationmechanisms based on specific molecular differences and/or even novel genes (Forment et al.,2005; Cercós et al., 2006; Terol et al., 2007 as cited by Iglesias, et al. 2007).Plant growth regulators have been used for many years to alter the behavior of fruit treesor fruit for the economic benefit of the fruit grower. Control of vegetative vigor, stimulation of flowering, regulation of crop load, reduction of fruit drop, and delay or stimulation of fruitmaturity and ripening are important examples of processes in fruit trees and fruit that can beregulated with exogenous applications of plant growth regulators. Plant-growth regulators are a potential means of regulating various aspects of fruit maturity. The development of methods for  bringing about early fruit maturity or delaying fruit maturation could prove of considerableadvantage for numerous citrus varieties grown under a broad range of climatic conditions andsubject to various marketing demands.The use of gibberellic acid (GA) is one of the most effective management tools availableto citrus growers to improve rind quality and delay rind aging. The use of GA on citrus has beenstudied since the early 1960s and GA’s effect on increasing peel firmness and delaying peelsenescence have been well documented. It has been demonstrated that Gibberellic Acid delaysloss of green rind pigments of navel orange (Coggins and Hield, 1958; Eman, et al. 2007),Valencia orange (Coggins, Hield, and Garber, 1960), grapefruit (Coggins, Hield, and Burns,1962; Ritenour, et al., 2005), tangerine (Soost and Burnett, 1961; Ritenour, et al., 2005), lemon(Coggins, Hield, and Boswell, 1960), lime (Burns et al., 1964), and satsuma mandarin (Nishiuraand Iba, 1964).
Regulation of chlorophyll breakdown at different physiological anddevelopmental stages of the plant life cycle, particularly at fruit color-break,is still not well understood. This paper presents the effects of GA to delayripening and prolong fruit storage of different citrus and describes the
mechanistic basis of color break in citrus and the role of Chlase in chlorophyll breakdown.

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