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NIIT Exam Buggy

NIIT Exam Buggy

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Published by: personagreata on Jun 21, 2009
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01/08/2013

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NIIT 
n
 Exam-Buggy 
1.
Basic Brush-up
:
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a type of 
SGML(Standard Generalized Markup Language)
. SGML is the internationalstandardized
Markup Language
.
HyperText
means machine-readable text so organized to create links toinformation at a different location. That is, it is not sequential but related itemsof information are connected. Instead of reading linearly to find information, onecan jump from one topic to another.A
Markup Language
is set of 
symbols
(alphabets, numbers & signs) and rules(
syntax
) for
their 
use when doing a markup of a document.A
markup
or a
tag
is that portion of the document
marked up or tagged 
toindicate how they should be displayed in the browser. These tags are notdisplayed by the browser.A
syntax
means rules governing an
arrangement of symbols
in a programminglanguage acceptable to a
compiler 
(a program that decodes) for that language.
2.
Basic Tags:
<html>
a browser reads
HTML page
due to this tag.A
Html Page
has a .html or .htm file extension. 
<head>
defines the header area (window top border) of a page.
<title>
this tag is present in the head section and gives title toa
 
Html page.
</head>
marks the end of head section[Here, </head> is also known as an
end tag
]
<body>
defines the main part
 
where contents will be displayed
<br>
inserts a single line break[Use
&nbsp
to insert more than one default space between two characters orimages]
</body>
defines the end of body
</html>
defines the end of page
 
 The above tags contain only the
basic structural elements;
and belong to
Level 0
of HTML Evolution.
3.
Text Formatting Tags:
 The following elements are all font style elements –
<b> </b>
 
defines start and end of bold texts
<i> </i>
defines start and end of italic text[<dfn>
Definition tag
, <var>
Variable tag
, <cite>
Citation tag,<em>Emphasized tag
all give same output as <i>]
<u> </u>
defines start and end of underlined text
<big>
defines start and end of bigger text
</big><small>
defines start and end of smaller text
</small><del>
defines start and end of strikethrough text
</del><sub>
defines start and end of subscript text
</sub><sup>
defines start and end of superscript text
</sup><tt> </tt>
defines start and end of 
Teletype text
<nobr>
does not allow a new line in the text; on excess of 80characters a scroll bar appears on the bottom of thescreen[<code>
Computer Code tag
, <samp>
Sample tag
, <kbd>
Keyboard tag
givesame result]
4.
Block Formatting Tags:
The following are all text-block style elements
<p> </p>
defines start and end of a paragraph
<center>
defines start and end of horizontally centered enclosedtext
</center><blockquote>
defines the start and end of a long quotation
<blockquote>/h1> to
defines end of header 1 to header 6
</h6><pre>
defines start and end of preformatted texts that
</pre>
preserve
spaces and line breaks
of the text enclosed
 
<address>
defines start and end of e-contact information for
</address>
document or a section that is a hyperlink[It allows
Class, ID and Style
attributes of CSS to be applied]
<base>
defines start and end of base URL for all the links in a
</base>
page
Example:
Assume that the absolute address for an image is:<img src="http://www.niit.com/images/smile.gif" />Now we insert the <base> tag, which specifies a base URL for all of the links in a page, in the head section of a page:<head><base href="http://www.niit.com/images/" /></head>When inserting images on the page in the example above, we justhave to specify the relative address, and the browser will look forthat file using the full URL, "http://www.niit.com/images/smile.gif":<img src="smile.gif" />
5.
Tags with Attributes:
The following are all text-block style elements withAttributes.
<body bgcolor = “#dfbfff” text = “#ff0808” bgproperties =“fixed”leftmargin = “60” topmargin = “60”>
defines 4attributes of contents will be displayed
</body ><font size=5 color=#45d11a face=arial>
defines 3 attributes of font styles
</font><hr size=3 width=50% align =right color= #ff0808noshade= false >
defines 5 attributes of a horizontal rule. NOSHADE:-when set to true the rule should render in a solid color,when set to false the rule should render in a two-colorgradient
</hr><li type=circle/disc/square>

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