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Slides 12

# Slides 12

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06/20/2009

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StupidTuringMachineTricks
Oftenitisusefultothinkofthestateandthetape symbolashavingstructure.

Thecomponentsofatapesymbolar
tracks
.

Usuallyonecomponentofthestateisthe
control
responsibleforrunningtheprogramoftheTM;othercomponentsholddata.
Exampl
Le
=
Q;

;
;;q
;B;
.Supposethe programof

Someofthestatesi
willbeofthefor
q;
and
p;
wher
isanysymbolin,.Wealsoneedstate
tobeginand
toend.

Instat

willpickupthesymbolscanneintothedataportionofthestate.
3

r;
=
q;
;X;
foral
in,.

Incontrolstate

depositsthesymboliitsdatacomponentandpicksupthesymbol thatwastheregoingtocontrolstat
.
3


q;
;
=
p;
;X;
foral
an
in,.

Incontrolstate

movingright.
3


p;
;
=
s;X;
foral
an
i,.
Example:MultipleTracks
Acommonuseformultipletracksistouseone trackfordatatheotherforasinglemark.

Symbolsof,arepairs
A;
wher
isthe real"symbolan
iseither
blankor

.
3
Inputsymbol
isidentiedwith
B;
.
3
Theblankis
B;
.

Here'saprogramtondthe

assumingitisomewheretotheleftofthepresentposition.1.

q;

B;
=
q;

B;
;
 2.

q;


;
=
p;

B;
;

OtherTMModel
WhileregularorCFlanguagesareclassesof languagesthatwedenedbyconvenientnotations RE'sCFG'setc.noonesupposedthatthey representedeverythingwecancompute.


ThepurposeoftheTMwastodeneverythingwecancompute.
3
Forconvenienceweuserecognition oflanguagesasthespaceofpossiblcomputablethings;otherspacese.g. computingarithmeticfunctionsyieldthe sameconclusions.

Thusitwouldbeawkwardifwecouldnd anothernotionofeverything"thatwas dierentfromtheTM.
3
Arealcomputerisanimportantspecial case.DorealcomputersandTM'sdene thesamesetofcomputablethings

OurnextstepsaretoconsiderpotentiallmorepowerfulnotionsofcomputingandsethattheTMmodelwedenedcansimulatthem.
3
Thesemodelsare:multitapeTM nondeterministicTMmultistacmachinescountermachinesrealcomputers.
MultitapeTM'
AllowtheTMtohavesomenitenumberoftape



Firsttapeholdstheinputothertapesarinitiallyblank.
ManyTapestoOneTapeSimulatio
Tosimulat
tapesuseonetapewith
tracks.

Onetrackholdsthecontentsofeachtape.


WXY

TosimulateonemoveofthemultitapeTM theone-tapeTMmustrememberhowman*'saretoitsleft.


Importantobservationforwhenwestudy polynomialtimeTM's:IfthemultitapeTmake
moveswhentheinputisoflengt
thentheone-tapeTMmake


moves.
3
ThusifthemultitapeTMtakepolynomialtimesodoestheone-tape TM.
3
Keypointinproof:The*'scan'tgemorethan
cellsapartsoonemove issimulatedi


movesoftheonetapeTM.
NondeterministicT
LettheTMhaveanitesetofchoicesofmove.

AswiththenondeterministicPDAthereinomix-and-match";if
p;X;
and
q;Y;R
 arechoiceswecannotgotostat
print
onthecellandmoverighte.g.unles
q;X;
isanotherchoice.
NondeterministictoDeterministiSimulation
LettheNTMhaveonetapebutrstsimulatwithamultitapeDTM;laterconvertthemultitape DTMtoaone-tapeDTM.

UseonetapeofDTMtohold
queue
ofID'oftheNTMseparatedbyspecialmarkers*.
