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The Role of Chittagong Port in the Economy of Bangladesh

The Role of Chittagong Port in the Economy of Bangladesh

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Published by Abdul Kader

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Published by: Abdul Kader on Jun 21, 2009
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The Role of Chittagong Port in the Economy of Bangladesh
MD. ABDUL KADER MBA (Finance)ID: 0925101
Since 1888 Chittagong port, the important and main port of Bangladesh with theshore base facilities, has been playing an essential part in the economic developmentof the country. It is considered the heart of the economy. This port creates theopportunity of flexible and cost-effective foreign trade to be carried out through this port with all the South Asian countries as well as other Asian countries for itsgeographical location. Moreover sufficient and low-cost labour readily exists here.For this reasons, Chittagong Port holds much potential as a highly promising regionalsea-port.The ports of the world have changed significantly with the advent of containerizationin trade in the seventies of the last century. The port of Chittagong, despite manyconstraints, continues to co cope with the changing patterns of the trade. However it issuffering from the problems of poor operational efficiency. Though, now theoperational efficiency is slightly improve for taking some efficient activities e.g.improve berthing problem, curtailing the influence of trade unions, automation of Chittagong Customs House etc.
 Introduction
A port is a facility for receivingshipsand transferring cargo. They are usually foundat the edge of anocean,sea,river , or lake. Ports often have cargo-handling equipment for use in loading/unloading of ships, which may be provided by private interests or  public bodies. Often,canneriesor other processing facilities will be located near by.Ports which handle international traffic havecustomsfacilities.Bangladesh with a population of 150 million has a substantial volume of internationaltrade of which 80% is seaborne. Although two seaports, namely Chittagong andMongla, are the gateways, Chittagong Port handles nearly 90% of all sea-borne trade,highlighting its importance to the economy of Bangladesh in spite of all itsdeficiencies. It is located by the estuary of theKarnaphuli River in Patenga, near thecity of Chittagong. Chittagong a vibrant port for cement and clinker, fertilizer, rawmaterials and in containerised manufactured products (especially ready madegarments) etc. Window berthing system, complete hand over of CCT operation to private copmany, Automation of Chittagong Cutoms House was introduced enablingthe sea port efficiency.1
 
Contents:
1.Historical Background of Chittagong Port 2.Contribution of CP in the Economy of Bangladesh
3.
 Existing Structure and Modus Operandi of CP 4.Automation of Customs in CP 5.Problems of CP 
6.
 Recommendation7.Conclusion
8.
 Reference
 s
1. Historical Background of Chittagong Port 
Bangladesh, sitting on the world’s largest delta, finds itself in a unique position as bridgehead between the two largest and most potential economic grouping of around3 bln burgeoning consumer base –SAARC and ASEAN-CHINA. Having the longest panoramic beach- Cox’sbazar and the biggest mangrove forest-Sunderban, home of Royal Bangal tiger, its history dates back to 2500 years with rich cultural heritagehaving some of the marvelously unparallel geological sites. Its overseas trading tracksseveral thousand years back particularly with its lone natural harbour Chittagong, oneof the most ancient ports of the globe renowned as Porte Grande since early centuries.The early history of Chittagong port dates back to the fourth century B.C. The Yemeniand the Arab traders of Babylon of ancient time used to trade with Arab country.Chittagong was one of the finest port in the near and far east at that time according bythe famous historian Ptolemi.The Arabs came to Chittagong for trading and with the mission to spread Islam. Withthe gradual settlement of the Arabs in Chittagong Islam and Arabic spread inChittagong. The well known Arab traveler Edrisi, Visited Chittagong Port in 1153A.D. and named Chittagong in his works as “Carnful”. In 1294 A.D., C.E. Markopolocame to Chittagong from Arakin and found it as a most flourishing port. Sir JohnHerbert writing in 1313 A.D. the Chinese Ambassador, Chengho, stayed in Chittagongand his Arab interpreter Mahuan noted in his book that with fabourable wind onecould travel from Sumatra to Chittagong within twenty days.Thirty five years after the discovery of route to India by Vasco De Gama, thePortuguese came to Chittagong under Martin Alfonso de Mello Jusaiti with five shipsand two hundred soldiers. This was followed by C.E. Perix de Sampayo in 1538 A.D.who came to Chittagong with nine ships and settled in Chittagong. The army of Emperor Akbar of India inflicted a crushing defeat on the Pathan ruler of Gaur inBengal. A large number of Pathans along with many saints took refuge in Chittagong.In 1340 A.D. Sultan Fakruddin declared independence of Bengal and ConqueredChittagong and built a road from Chittagong to Chandpur. During the role of sultan2
 
Fakruddin, Ibna Batuta the famous traveler visited Chittagong and mentioned it as“Saterkoan” and found it to be a prosperous port and city.The Venetian traveler Misira in 1565 A.D. Finnish traveler Ceasar Fredrick traveled toChittagong. From these travel records it appears that about this tome Chittagong was adeveloped port. The traveler Misira has written in his travel records that “every year two hundred Ship loads of salt used to be exported to ship building materials such astimber and other materials and that the Sultan of Turkey used to get their Ships built atChittagong at cheaper cost”. Traveler, Ceaser Frederick gave an account that largequantities of silver used to be imported from Pegu to Chittagong and Chittagong Portwas the main port for 
 Silver Trade
.The Portuguese took great interest in Chittagong in the Sixteenth Century and namedit as “Porto Grande”. In the Seventeenth Century it was a scene of British expeditionsand in 1760 it was ceded to the East Indian Company of England. Under the act of 1887 British-India ultimately led to the performing of port which was introduced on25
th
April, 1888 and Chittagong Port commissioners started the function.The
administrative history
of the Port began in 1875 with the enactment of IndianPorts Act 1875 (Act XII) when the port officer who was also the Collector of Customsused administers the Port under Act XII of 1875.Chittagong Port was suddenly subjected of heavy pressure of more commercialactivities that’s why some rapid development necessitated the reorganization of thePort Management and as a result Chittagong Port Trust was formed in July, 1960 to doaway with the dual administration of the Port by the Port Commissioners and the PortRailway.Due to the challenge of modernization and the abnormal situation prevailing duringthe period of war of war of liberation, it was felt that more autonomy be given to themanagement for better administration and quick expansion of Port, hence inSeptember 1976 by an ordinance of the Govt. of Bangladesh the Chittagong PortAuthority (CPA) came into being. (Year Book’92, CPA)
 Historical Background’s Summary of Chittagong Port 
4th CenturyBC:Used to be called SHETGANG. Ships from Middle East and Chinaused this Port.9th century:Omani & Yemeni traders landed in this Port.16th century:Used to be known as "PORTE GRANDE". Portuguese took greatinterest to use this port.1887:Formal Port operation started from 25th April.1895-1910:Four Jetties were constructed to handle 0.5 million tons of cargo. Portused to be administered jointly by Port Commissioners and Assam-Bengal Railway.1960:Chittagong Port Trust was formed.1976:Chittagong Port Authority was formed.
(Source:www.cpa.gov.bd)
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