To produce the carrier in Fig. 2b, equal dc values would be required at the I and Qmodulator inputs. Assuming unity gain in the modulator, to produce a carrier of unity amplitude at 45 degrees, the I and Q inputs must both be dc values of Q
= +0.707. The baseband inputs (those producing the information), must obviously vary overtime, creating a difference between the modulated and unmodulated carriers. Themodulator block diagram is shown below. The signal first goes through an A/Dconverter, is compressed, checked for errors and encoded, then sent through a filterto the IF and RF mixers:
IQ Modulator and transmitter chain. Baseband signal appears at left. Block "A" tothe right of the A/D does compression and error-correction.
Applications of IQ Modulators
IQ modulators are used in digital radios and also in reconfigurable radios
. The IQmodulation is also used in modems (Modulator Demodulator)
The collector-injection modulator is the transistor equivalent of the electron-tubeAM plate modulator. This transistor modulator can be used for low-level or relativelyhigh-level modulation. It is referred toas relatively high-level modulationbecause, at the present time,transistors are limited in their power-handling capability. As illustrated in thefigure, the circuit design for a transistorcollector- injection modulator is verysimilar to that of a plate modulator. Thecollector-injection modulator is capableof 100-percent modulation with mediumpower-handling capabilities. In thefigure, the RF carrier is applied to thebase of modulator Q1. The modulatingsignal is applied to the collector inseries with the collector supply voltagethrough T3. The output is then takenfrom the secondary of T2. With nomodulating signal, Q1 acts as an RF
IQ Modulators Advance Reconfigurable Radios by Eamon Nash, June 2006.