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ADCS Assignment #1

ADCS Assignment #1

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Published by Mehran Mustafa

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Published by: Mehran Mustafa on Jun 21, 2009
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NUST SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTERSCIENCE
ANALOG AND DIGITALCONTROL SYSTEMS
ASSIGNMENT #1
118-MEHRAN MUSTAFA-BEE 3A5/4/2009
 
IQ MODULATOR
One modulation techniquethat lends itself well to digitalprocesses is called "IQModulation", where "I" is the"in-phase" component of thewaveform, and "Q"represents the quadraturecomponent. In its variousforms, IQ modulation is anefficient way to transferinformation, and it also workswell with digital formats. An IQ modulator can actually create AM, FM and PM.
(It isused in configurable radio).
Figure-1:
I-Q Modulator (Mixer, Combiner, DifferentialInput Buffer and Power amplifier
IQ modulators and IQ demodulators change the amplitude, frequency, or phase of acarrier signal in order to transmit information. IQ modulators split an incoming datastream into its in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) components, mix the resultingsignals with local oscillators that are 90º apart in phase, and then combine theoutputs vectorially in a 0º mixerWhen a carrier is modulated with a waveform that changes the carrier’s frequencyslightly, the modulated signal is treated as a phasor. It has both a real and animaginary part, or an in-phase (I) and a quadrature (Q) part. A receiver is designedthat locks to the carrier, and the information can be deciphered by reading the I andQ parts of the modulating signal. The information appears on a polar plot as in Fig.1below. The I/Q plane shows two things:1.What the modulatedcarrier is doing relative tothe unmodulated carrier.2.What baseband I and Qinputs are required toproduce the modulatedcarrier.
(a)(b)
Figure-2
:
 
Unmodulated (a) and modulated (b) carrier. The positive I axis is arbitrarilychosen to represent 0 degrees relative to the unmodulated carrier. In part (a), since the plotof the modulated carrier is relative to the unmodulated carrier, an unmodulated carrierappears as a fixed vector along the positive I axis. In part (b), a modulated carrier at thesame frequency as the unmodulated carrier but offset by 45 degrees appears as a fixedvector at 45 degrees.
 
 To produce the carrier in Fig. 2b, equal dc values would be required at the I and Qmodulator inputs. Assuming unity gain in the modulator, to produce a carrier of unity amplitude at 45 degrees, the I and Q inputs must both be dc values of Q
dc
= I
dc
= +0.707. The baseband inputs (those producing the information), must obviously vary overtime, creating a difference between the modulated and unmodulated carriers. Themodulator block diagram is shown below. The signal first goes through an A/Dconverter, is compressed, checked for errors and encoded, then sent through a filterto the IF and RF mixers:
Figure 3:
 
IQ Modulator and transmitter chain. Baseband signal appears at left. Block "A" tothe right of the A/D does compression and error-correction.
Applications of IQ Modulators
IQ modulators are used in digital radios and also in reconfigurable radios
1
. The IQmodulation is also used in modems (Modulator Demodulator)
Collector-Injection Modulator
The collector-injection modulator is the transistor equivalent of the electron-tubeAM plate modulator. This transistor modulator can be used for low-level or relativelyhigh-level modulation. It is referred toas relatively high-level modulationbecause, at the present time,transistors are limited in their power-handling capability. As illustrated in thefigure, the circuit design for a transistorcollector- injection modulator is verysimilar to that of a plate modulator. Thecollector-injection modulator is capableof 100-percent modulation with mediumpower-handling capabilities. In thefigure, the RF carrier is applied to thebase of modulator Q1. The modulatingsignal is applied to the collector inseries with the collector supply voltagethrough T3. The output is then takenfrom the secondary of T2. With nomodulating signal, Q1 acts as an RF
1
IQ Modulators Advance Reconfigurable Radios by Eamon Nash, June 2006.

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