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Gravitational Force

Gravitational Force

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Published by: bshirase on Jun 21, 2009
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10/05/2010

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Gravitational ForceGravitation
is a natural phenomenonby which objects withmassattract one another.
[1] 
In everyday life, gravitation is most commonly thought of as the agency which lendsweightto objects with mass. Gravitation compels dispersed matter to coalesce, thus itaccounts for the very existence of theEarth,theSun, and most of the macroscopic objects in theuniverse.Modern physicsdescribes gravitation using thegeneral theory of relativity.Newton's law of universal gravitationprovides an excellent approximation for most calculations.The terms
gravitation
and
gravity
are mostly interchangeable in everyday use, but adistinction may be made in scientific usage. "Gravitation" is a general term describing the phenomenon responsible for keeping the Earth and the other planets in their orbitsaroundthe Sun; for keeping theMoonin its orbit around the Earth, for the formation of tides; for  convection(by which hot fluids rise); for heating the interiors of forming stars and planets to very high temperatures; and for various other phenomena that we observe."Gravity", on the other hand, is described as the theoretical force responsible for theapparent attraction between a mass and the Earth.
Ingeneral relativity, gravitation isdefined as the curvature of spacetime which governs the motion of inertial objects.Since the gravitational force is experienced by all matter in the universe, from the largestgalaxies down to the smallest particles, it is often called universal gravitation. (Basedupon observations of distant supernovas around the turn of the 21st cent., a repulsiveforce, termed
dark energydark energy, repulsive force that opposes the self-attraction of matter (see gravitation ) and causes the expansion of the universe toaccelerate. The search for dark energy was triggered by the discovery (1998) inimages from the Hubble Space Telescope of a distant
Sir Isaac
NewtonNewton, Sir Isaac, 1642–1727, English mathematician and naturalphilosopher (physicist), who is considered by many the greatest scientist that everlived.
was the first to fully recognize that the force holding any object to the earth is the same asthe force holding the moon, the planets, and other heavenly bodies in their orbits.According to Newton's law of universal gravitation, the force between any two bodies isdirectly proportional to the product of their masses (see
massmass, in physics, thequantity of matter in a body regardless of its volume or of any forces acting on it.The term should not be confused with weight , which is the measure of the force of gravity (see gravitation ) acting on a body.
And inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The constant of  proportionality in this law is known as the gravitational constant; it is usually represented by the symbol
G
and has the value 6.670 × 10
−11
N-m
2
/kg
2
in the meter-kilogram-second(mks) system of units. Very accurate early measurements of the value of 
G
were made byHenry Cavendish.
 
Electromagnetic force
In
, the electromagnetic force is the force that the
exerts onelectrically charged particles. It is the electromagnetic force that holds
and
together in
, and which hold atoms together to make
. Theelectromagnetic force operates via the exchange of 
called
and
. The exchange of messenger particles between bodies acts to createthe perceptual force whereby instead of just pushing or pulling particles apart, theexchange changes the character of the particles that swap them.Originally, electricity and magnetism were thought of as two separate forces. This viewchanged, however, with the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's 1873
Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
in which the interactions of positive and negative chargeswere shown to be regulated by one force. There are four main effects resulting from theseinteractions, which have been clearly demonstrated by experiment:1.Electric charges attract or repel one another with a force inversely proportional tothe square of the distance between them: unlike charges attract, like ones repel.2.Magnetic poles (or states of polarization at individual points) attract or repel oneanother in a similar way and always come in pairs: every north pole is yoked to asouth pole.3.An electric current in a wire creates a circular magnetic field around the wire, itsdirection depending on that of the current.4.A current is induced in a loop of wire when it is moved towards or away from amagnetic field, or a magnet is moved towards or away from it, the direction of current depending on that of the movement.It is not the electromagnetic force but rather the strong nuclear force that holds together the nucleus of an atom
 
Nuclear force
The nuclear force (or nucleon-nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between two or morenucleons.It is responsible for binding of  protonsandneutronsinto atomic nuclei. To a large extent, this force can be understood in terms of the exchange of virtual lightmesons, such as the pions. Sometimes the nuclear force is called the residual strong force, in contrast to thestrong interactionswhich are now understood to arise fromquantum chromodynamics(QCD). This phrasing arose during the 1970s when QCD was being established. Before that time, the
 strong nuclear force
referred to the inter-nucleon potential. After the verification of thequark model,
 strong interaction
has come to meanQCD.Since nucleons have nocolor charge, the nuclear force does not
directly
involve the forcecarriers of quantum chromodynamics, thegluons.However, just as electrically neutralatoms (each composed of cancelling charges) attract each other via the second-order effects of electrical polarization, via thevan der Waals forces(London forces
 
), so byanalogy, "color-neutral" nucleons may attract each other by a type of polarization whichallows some basically gluon-mediated effects to be carried from one color-neutralnucleon to another, via the virtual mesons which transmit the forces, and whichthemselves are held together by virtual gluons. It is this
van der Waals-like
nature whichis responsible for the term "residual" in the term "residual strong force." The basic idea isthat while the nucleons are "color-neutral," just as atoms are "charge-neutral," in bothcases, polarization effects acting between near-by neutral particles allow a "residual"charge effect to cause net charge-mediated attraction between uncharged species,although it is necessarily of a much weaker and less direct nature than the basic forceswhich act internally within the particles.The nuclear force has been at the heart of nuclear physicsever since the field was born in1932 with the discovery of theneutronbyJames Chadwick . The traditional goal of  nuclear physics is to understand the properties of atomic nucleiin terms of the 'bare'interaction between pairs of nucleons, or 
nucleon-nucleon forces
(
 NN 
forces
).

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