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Performance Analysis of Call Admission Control Schemes in WCDMA Network

Performance Analysis of Call Admission Control Schemes in WCDMA Network

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Published by ijcsis
The main objective of this research is to derive a numerical model of call admission control in WCDMA network and examines its performance. Three important call admission algorithms: wideband power based (WPB), throughput based (TB) and adaptive call admission control (ACAC) algorithms are investigated along with their performance analyzed throughout this paper and a little comparison between them is presented.
The main objective of this research is to derive a numerical model of call admission control in WCDMA network and examines its performance. Three important call admission algorithms: wideband power based (WPB), throughput based (TB) and adaptive call admission control (ACAC) algorithms are investigated along with their performance analyzed throughout this paper and a little comparison between them is presented.

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Published by: ijcsis on Sep 08, 2013
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 8, 2013
Performance Analysis of Call Admission ControlSchemes in WCDMA Network
Syed Foysol Islam
Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Development Alternative (UODA)Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Mohammad Shahinur Islam
Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Development Alternative (UODA)Dhaka, Bangladesh. 
Abstract— The main objective of this research is to derive anumerical model of call admission control in WCDMA networkand examines its performance. Three important call admissionalgorithms: wideband power based (WPB), throughput based(TB) and adaptive call admission control (ACAC) algorithms areinvestigated along with their performance analyzed throughoutthis paper and a little comparison between them is presented.
 Key Words: Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA),Wideband power based (WPB), Throughput based (TB) and  Adaptive call admission control (ACAC)
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 When a new call arrives in the system, it needs to check whether to accept the call or not. At first the system has toexamine whether the new call is going to degrade the qualityof the ongoing calls or the planned coverage area. If itattempts to make degradation in the system, then the systemshould block the call. In order to maintain the required qualityof service of the new incoming call, there are three parametersthat have to be checked: required SIR, inter cellular interference, intracellular interference. Based on these parameters the system admits the call in a selective way thatdoes not affect the ongoing calls. This decision making part of the UMTS network is called the call admission control (CAC).In this research we will deeply study three call admissionschemes and their performance.Calculation of SIR:
SIR =
rface PoweTotal Inteer Signal Pow
 
(1)
 
Equatiion (I) can be simplified as
SIR = SF.
total  j
 I  P 
= SF.
nraer  j
 P  I  I  P 
++
intint
 
(2)
 
Where,
 P 
 j
= Received signal power of the user at Node B,
 
total 
 I 
=
nraer 
 P  I  I 
++
intint
 
(3)
 
 I 
inter 
 
= Interference caused by the Intercellular communications,
I
intra
= Interference caused by the Intra cellular communications,
 P 
n
= Thermal Noise which is assumed to be -99dBm in the downlink and -103 dBm in the uplink 
SF 
= Spreading Factor 
Spreading Factor 
 
=
n Rate InformationdwidthCarrier Ba
=
 Data RateChip Rate
=
 R
 
(4)
II.
 
C
ALL
A
DMISSION
C
ONTROL
S
CHEMES
We have reviewed a lot of papers on this issue. Eachmethod takes different parameter to make the decision criteria.Intercell interference and intracell interference are taken intoaccount to measure the wideband received power based(WPB) admission control and the system throughput based(TB) admission control, service specific admission control, anheuristic method for making the decision of admission control,call admission control depends on the available bandwidth andcapacity of the system presented in [1] [7] [5] [6] respectly.An adaptive method for call admission control (ACAC)focused in [4]. In this paper we have investigated on two maincall admission control algorithm WPB and TB. A brief discussion on these methods is presented in this paper. A new promising method adaptive call admission control (ACAC)also compared with the previous two methods.
 A.
 
WPB Admission Control 
Interference caused by the mobile stations within the owncell and also by the neighboring cells taken into account in thismethod The system maintains a threshold value both for uplink and downlink for accepting a new call.
UP Link:
A new call is accepted only when the new totalinterference
(
 I 
total 
+
Δ
 I 
)
caused by the new call is less than thethreshold value (
 I 
th
) set by radio network planning. If the newresulting total interference that caused by the new call exceedsthe threshold value it should be blocked. The mathematicalrepresentation of this formula is given by the equation (5)
 
43421
rferenceTotal Inte I old total  I 
Δ+
 _ 
th
 
(5)
 Where,
 I 
total=
The interference before admitting the new call
Δ
 I =
The estimated interference caused by the new call,Figure 1 shows the explanation of this method. Let us assumethat in a power controlled system the load of the system at any
101http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 8, 2013
instant is
 L
old 
and that creates the interference
 I 
old 
. Nowconsider a new call coming to the Node B for gettingadmission then the RNC estimates the interference it wouldcreate as
Δ
 I 
which is marked as
 I 
new
. The admission controlalgorithm checks whether this total interference (
 I 
old 
+
Δ
 I 
)would exceed the predefined threshold value
 I 
th
. If the totalinterference exceeds the threshold value
 I 
th
then that call must be blocked.
Figure 1: Interference level as a function of Load factor. [1]
As we have seen from the equation
(4)
that the estimated valueof interference need to calculated. There are two methods for the calculation of increase interference or power, thederivative method and the integration method. Both take intoaccount the load curve and are based on the derivative of uplink interference with respect to the uplink load factor i.e.
η 
dI 
total 
 
(6)
 We Know Noise rise is given by [1],
 Noise rise =
iseThermal Nocall itting newbefore admerferenceThe
int
 
 
ntotal 
 P  I 
 
 
η 
11
 
total 
 I 
 
 
η 
1
n
 P 
 
So
,
η 
dI 
total 
 
 
( )
2
1
η 
n
 P 
 
(7)
 The change in the uplink interference can be obtained by thefollowing equations
 Δ
 L
 Δ
 I 
 
 
η 
dI 
total 
 
 
 Δ
 I 
η 
dI 
total 
 Δ
 L
 
(8)
  Now using equation (7),
 
 Δ
 I 
 
 
( )
2
1
η 
n
 P 
 Δ
 L
 
(9)
 Substituting by the value of P
n
, equation (8) can be simplifiedas
 Δ
 I 
 
 
η 
1
total 
 I 
 
 Δ
 L
 
(10)
 The second uplink interference increase estimation based onthe integration method in which the differentiation of uplink interference with respect to the load factor is integrated fromthe old value of load factor (
 L
old 
η 
) to the new value (
 L
new
 Δ
L
η
+
) i.e.
 Δ
 I 
 
+
Δ
L
η
total 
dI 
η 
 
(11)
+
 Δ
L
η
η 
 
( )
2
1
η 
n
 P 
 Δ
 L
 
 
η
 P 
 Δ
 L
η
 P 
nn
11
 
 
( )( )
η Δ
 L
η Δ
 L)
ηη
 P 
n
++
1111
 
)1(.)1(
η
 P 
 Δ
 L
η
 L
n
Δ
 
(12)
 Simplified by equation (6)
 Δ
 I 
 
 
 L I 
total 
Δ
η 
1
 
 Δ
 L
 
(13)
 The value of load
 Δ
 L
is given by
 Δ
 L
vR N  E 
b
)(11
0
+
 
(14)
 Where, E
 b
/N
0
denotes signal to noise ratio, W is the chip rate,v is the activity factor and R data rate of traffic.Downlink: In the downlink the same strategies is used but inthis case the considering parameter is transmission power. If the new total downlink transmission power does not exceedthe threshold power value, then the call is admitted.
43421
Total Powe
 Δ
 P total_old  P 
+
 
 P 
th
(15)
 
 P 
total_old 
: The transmission power before admitting the newcall,
Δ
 P:
Estimated transmission power required for the newcall,
 P 
th
:
Threshold value set by radio network planning,
Total  Power 
: Total estimated transmission power,The power increase
Δ
 P 
total 
is estimated by the initial power.
 B.
 
Throughput Based Admission Control 
Unlike wide band power based admission control,throughput based admission control takes into account theload. Two different threshold values one for uplink thresholdand downlink threshold are used for taking decision.Uplink:
102http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 8, 2013
The new user is not admitted in the system if the new totalload exceeds the predefined uplink threshold set by the radionetwork planning.
43421
Total Load ul 
Δ
 L
η
+
 
Thul 
 _ 
η 
 
(16)
 Where,
η
ul 
: The load before admitting new user 
 L
old 
,
 Δ
 L
:Estimated load for the new user or call,
η
ul_Th
: Threshold valuefor the uplink load factor,
Total Power:
Total estimated loadfor the new user 
Figure 2: Load Curve
Down Link: The new call is not admitted in the system if thetotal resulting load exceeds the downlink threshold value.
 Δ
 L
η
 DL
+
 
Th DL
 _ 
η 
 
(17)
 Where
 DL
η 
can be calculated as
 DL
η 
 
max1
 R R
 N  j j
 
(18)
 N is the total no of connections in the system,
 R
 j
is the bit rateof user 
 j
and
 R
max
is the maximum allowed throughput of thecell [1].
C.
 
 Adaptive Call Admission Control 
ACAC scheme, the base station updates the total no of users tothe RNC in regular intervals (
τ
). This small interval may callan epoch. With this information the RNC should decide whichscheme (WPB or TB) it needs to switch to, by calculating thenumber of each type of user presented in the system at the endof a previous epoch. If there are more voice users, the ACACswitches to WPB and if there are more data users, it switchesto the TB scheme. This prediction depends on
α
, which is the parameter used to predict the number of calls in the comingepoch and
 β 
 ,
keeps the information of total number of callsthat have originated in the system since start-up. The values of 
α
and
β
varies between 0 and 1 and are calculated adaptivelythrough simulations [4], [8]. The predicted no of calls thatarrive in the system determined by the following equations
total nn
 )1( 1
β α α 
++=+
 
(19)
 
total  D Dn Dn D
 )1( 1
β α α 
++=+
 
(20)
 Where,
 
1
+
n
:
voice calls arrival in the coming epoch,
1
+
n D
:
 data calls arrival in the coming epoch,
n
:
voice calls in the previous epoch,
n D
:
data calls in the previous epoch,
n
:
Originated number of voice calls in the previous epoch,
n D
:
Originated number of data calls in the previous epoch.
 
In a system where (m-k) channels are busy is defined by thefollowing equation
=+=
10)1,1( 11)1,1(  ),(
 Rbmb Ammm
 β  β  β 
 
(21)
 Here,
 R:
The number of traffic classes (
0 – R –1
),
b
:
Requireddata rate,
m:
No of servers in the system and
k >0
 A
μ λ 
 
 ss of claal ratell arrivbuted cal distri Exponentia classrate of arrival d call distribute Poisson
The initial values of 
 β 
measured by the following equations
=+==
10)1,1( 1110)1,1( 1 )0,(
 Rbmb Am Rbmb Amm
 β  β  β 
 
(22)
 III.
 
C
OMPARATIVE
ESULT
 Contrast between WPB and TB schemes is shown by thefigure 3. It has been observed from the graph that moreinterference will add from the neighboring cells with theincreasing value of 
i
. The other cell to own cell interferenceratio
i
with value 0 means no interference from the neighbor.
Figure 3: WPB and TB admission criteria
WPB takes the interference from adjacent frequency bands.This could be originated from the other operator’s mobilestation, which is closer to a base station. So that it could perform an overestimate of the wide band received power. TBdoes not take inference from the neighboring cells. Rather itconcern about the loading of the neighboring cells through theRNC.Adaptive call admission control (ACAC) combines the WPBand TB schemes. Depending on the total no of voice
(19)
anddata users
(20)
it switches between WPB and TB scheme. If there is more voice user in the system ACAC switches toWPB mode and if there is more data users than the voice usersthe ACAC follow the TB mode. The limitations of WPB andTB overcome by the ACAC scheme. The call blocking probability in ACAC is tends to be zero comparing other twomethods. Figure 4 and 5 compares the performance of these
103http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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