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A Fourth-Generation MIMO-OFDM Broadband Wireless System Design, Performance, and Field Trial Results.pdf

A Fourth-Generation MIMO-OFDM Broadband Wireless System Design, Performance, and Field Trial Results.pdf

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Published by Sarbaz Irani
A Fourth-Generation
4g
MIMO-OFDM
Broadband Wireless
System Design
Performance, and Field Trial Results
A Fourth-Generation MIMO-OFDM Broadband Wireless System Design, Performance, and Field Trial Results
A Fourth-Generation
4g
MIMO-OFDM
Broadband Wireless
System Design
Performance, and Field Trial Results
A Fourth-Generation MIMO-OFDM Broadband Wireless System Design, Performance, and Field Trial Results

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Published by: Sarbaz Irani on Sep 08, 2013
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IEEE Communications Magazine • September 2002
143
 A Fourth-Generation MIMO-OFDMBroadband Wireless System: Design,Performance, and Field Trial Results
0163-6804/02/$17.00 © 2002 IEEE
 A 
BSTRACT
Increasing demand for high-performance 4Gbroadband wireless is enabled by the use of multi-ple antennas at both base station and subscriberends. Multiple antenna technologies enable highcapacities suited for Internet and multimedia ser- vices, and also dramatically increase range andreliability. In this article we describe a multiple-input multiple-output OFDM wireless communi-cation system, lab test results, and recent field testresults obtained in San Jose, California. These arethe first MIMO system field tests to establish theperformance of MIMO communication systems.Increased capacity, coverage, and reliability areclearly evident from the test results presented inthis article.
I
NTRODUCTION
This design is motivated by the growing demandfor broadband Internet access. The challenge for wireless broadband access lies in providing a com-parable quality of service (QoS) for similar cost ascompeting wireline technologies. The target fre-quency band for this system is 2–5 GHz due tofavorable propagation characteristics and lowradio frequency (RF) equipment cost. The broad-band channel is typically non-LOS channel andincludes impairments such as time-selective fad-ing and frequency-selective fading. This articledescribes the physical layer design of a fourth-generation (4G) wireless broadband system thatis, motivated from technical requirements of thebroadband cellular channel, and from practicalrequirements of hardware and RF. The key objec-tives of the system are to provide good coveragein a non-line-of-sight (LOS) environment (>90percent of the users within a cell), reliable trans-mission (>99.9 percent reliability), high peak datarates (>1 Mb/s), and high spectrum efficiency(>4 b/s/Hz/sector). These system requirementscan be met by the combination of two powerfultechnologies in the physical layer design: multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) antennas andorthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) modulation. Henceforth, the system isreferred to as Airburst.Multiple antennas at the transmitter andreceiver provide diversity in a fading environ-ment. By employing multiple antennas, multiplespatial channels are created, and it is unlikely allthe channels will fade simultaneously. The Air-burst system employs two transmit antennas andthree receive antennas at the base station (2
×
3downlink), and one transmit antenna and threereceive antennas at the customer premises equip-ment (CPE) (1
×
3 uplink). Only one transmitantenna is used at the transmitter due to costconsiderations. It is seen that spatial diversity in Airburst yields link budget improvements of 10–20 dB compared to a single-input single-out-put (SISO) system by reducing the fade margins.In addition, the two base transceiver station(BTS) antennas are used to double the data ratefor users with certain channel characteristics bytransmitting independent data streams from thetwo antennas. This technique, known as spatialmultiplexing, can significantly increase systemcapacity [1, 2]. At the receiver, multiple anten-nas are used to separate spatial multiplexingstreams and for interference mitigation, whichmakes aggressive frequency reuse a reality.OFDM is chosen over a single-carrier solu-tion due to lower complexity of equalizers forhigh delay spread channels or high data rates. A broadband signal is broken down into multiplenarrowband carriers (tones), where each carrieris more robust to multipath. In order to main-tain orthogonality among tones, a cyclic prefix isadded that has length greater than the expecteddelay spread. With proper coding and interleav-ing across frequencies, multipath turns into anOFDM system advantage by yielding frequencydiversity. OFDM can be implemented efficientlyby using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) at thetransmitter and receiver. At the receiver, FFTreduces the channel response into a multiplica-
Hemanth Sampath, Shilpa Talwar, Jose Tellado, and Vinko Erceg, Iospan Wireless Inc. Arogyaswami Paulraj, Iospan Wireless Inc. and Stanford University 
T
OPICS IN
W
IRELESS
C
OMMUNICATIONS
 
IEEE Communications Magazine • September 2002
144
tive constant on a tone-by-tone basis. WithMIMO, the channel response becomes a matrix.Since each tone can be equalized independently,the complexity of space-time equalizers is avoid-ed. Multipath remains an advantage for aMIMO-OFDM system since frequency selectivitycaused by multipath improves the rank distribu-tion of the channel matrices across frequencytones, thereby increasing capacity [3]. Another key feature of the physical layerdesign is adaptive modulation and coding thatallows different data rates to be assigned to dif-ferent users depending on their channel condi-tions. Since the channel conditions vary overtime, the receiver collects a set of channel statis-tics which are used both by the transmitter andreceiver to optimize system parameters such asmodulation and coding, signal bandwidth, signalpower, training period, channel estimation fil-ters, automatic gain control, and so on. The Air-burst system has a proprietary link adaptationalgorithm (LA) that tracks channel variationsand adapts transmission parameters to performoptimally under prevailing conditions [4].Of course, a successful broadband wirelessaccess system must have an efficient co-designedmedium access control (MAC) layer for reliablelink performance over the lossy wireless channel.The corresponding MAC is designed so that theTCP/IP layers see a high-quality link that itexpects. This is achieved by an automatic retrans-mission and fragmentation mechanism (automaticrepeat request, ARQ), wherein the transmitterbreaks up packets received from higher layersinto smaller subpackets, which are transmittedsequentially. If a subpacket is receiver incorrectly,the transmitter is requested to retransmit it. ARQcan be seen as a mechanism for introducing timediversity into the system due to its capability torecover from noise, interference, and fades. Moredetails on ARQ design can be found in [5].The performance of the Airburst system isdemonstrated by lab and field trial results. Theperformance can be measured by three key met-rics: coverage, spectrum efficiency, and reliability.The first two metrics are key in determining thecost of the system. Good coverage is importantinitially when few base stations are installed, whilespectrum efficiency defines how many users canbe supported per unit of spectrum over the long-term. Reliability determines the quality of servicea customer receives, and correspondingly long-term customer satisfaction. The system is current-ly targeted for business, home-office, residentialand mobile users requiring high-rate data services.
MIMO-OFDMD
ESIGN
C
ONSTRAINTS
N
ON
-LOS C
HANNEL
M
ODELS
In this section we briefly describe the key chan-nel characteristics that influence the broadband wireless system design such as channel disper-sion, Ricean
 K 
-factor, Doppler, cross-polariza-tion discrimination, antenna correlation, andcondition number. Figure 1 shows a typical non-LOS propagation scenario.
Channel Dispersion
— An important channelcharacteristic that influences a system perfor-mance is channel dispersion due to reflectionsfrom close in and far away objects. The dispersionis often quantified by the rms delay spread, whichincreases with distance, and changes with environ-ment, antenna beamwidth, and antenna height [6].Typical values are in the 0.1–5
µ
s range.
K-Factor 
— The fading signal magnitude follows aRice distribution, which can be characterized bytwo parameters: the power
 P 
 c
of constant channelcomponents and the power
 P 
 s
from scatter channelcomponents. The ratio of these two (
 P 
 c
 / 
 P 
 s
) is calledthe Ricean
 K 
-factor. The worst case fading occurs when
 P 
 c
= 0 and the distribution is regarded asRayleigh distribution (
 K 
= 0). The
 K 
-factor is animportant parameter in system design since itrelates to the probability of a fade of certain depth.Both fixed and mobile communications systemshave to be designed for the most severe fading con-ditions for reliable operation (i.e., Rayleigh fading).
Doppler 
— The fixed wireless channel Dopplerspectrum differs from the mobile channelDoppler spectrum [6]. For fixed wireless chan-nels, it was found that the Doppler is in the0.1–2 Hz frequency range and has close to expo-nential or rounded spectrum shape. For mobile wireless channels, the Doppler can be on theorder of 100 Hz and has the Jake’s spectrum.
Cross-Polarization Discrimination
— Thecross-polarization discrimination (XPD) isdefined as the ratio of the co-polarized averagereceived power
 P 
 ll
to the cross-polarized averagereceived power,
 P 
⊥ 
. XPD quantifies the separa-tion between two transmission channels that usedifferent polarization orientations. The largerthe XPD, the less energy is coupled between thecross-polarized channels. The XPD values werefound to decrease with increasing distance [6].
 Antenna Correlation
— Antenna correlationplays a very important role in single-input multi-output (SIMO), multi-input single-output(MISO), and MIMO systems. If the complex cor-relation coefficient is high (e.g., greater than 0.7),
s
Figure 1.
 A wireless propagation scenario.
BasestationReceiver
 
IEEE Communications Magazine • September 2002
145
diversity and multiplexing gains can be significant-ly reduced (or completely diminished in the caseof correlation of 1). Generally, it was found thatthe complex correlation coefficients are low, inthe 0.1–0.5 range for properly selected base sta-tion and receiver antenna configurations.
Condition Number 
— The condition number isdefined as a ratio of the maximum and minimumeigenvalues of the MIMO channel matrix. Largecapacity gains from spatial multiplexing opera-tion in MIMO wireless systems is possible whenthe statistical distributions of condition numbershave mostly low values. LOS conditions oftencreate undesirable MIMO matrix conditions(i.e., high condition numbers) that can be miti-gated using dual-polarized antennas. For lowBTS antennas most propagation conditions arenon-LOS with a considerable amount of scatter-ing, in which case the multiplexing gains of MIMO systems are very significant.
RF
 AND
H
 ARDWARE
C
ONSIDERATIONS
In addition to the wireless channel characteristics, we need to consider the practical hardware (HW)limitations of low-cost RF and mixed signaldevices when designing a broadband wireless datasystem. Moreover, since wireless systems mustcoexist with other co-channel and adjacent-chan-nel services, the system must meet emission speci-fications at the transmitter (masks, max EIRP,etc.) and must be able to tolerate specified levelsof undesired interfering signals at the receiver.The distortion effects from the HW will add tothe degradation effects from the channel to yieldthe overall link performance. Moreover, undergood channel conditions the HW distortion willultimately determine the maximum performance of the link. For a MIMO system operating in spatialmultiplexing mode, the HW SNDR requirement isonly a few dB higher since the channel matrix con-dition number can increase the effective receivedistortion. Measured field trial results of our sys-tem confirm that the HW SNDR requirement isonly a few dB higher for a MIMO receiver operat-ing in spatial multiplexing mode relative to a SISOcounterpart that operates at a fraction of the datarate. On the other hand, since the effective datarate grows logarithmically with increasing SNDR, aSISO system with equal data rate would requireHW specifications to get exponentially better.Moreover, for a MIMO system operating in diver-sity mode the HW requirements are lower than itsSISO counterpart due to HW impairment diversitysince the distortion is typically uncorrelated acrossmultiple HW chains. In the 2–5 GHz frequencybands, it is possible to design low-cost wireless HWusing IC components. After aggregating all the dis-tortion effects, including both the transmitter andreceiver ends, a good design will yield up to 30 dBof SNDR. With this SNDR it is possible to suc-cessfully transmit MIMO with up to 64-quadratureamplitude modulation (QAM) with light coding.There exist a large number of sources of distortionat both the transmit and receive ends of a broad-band wireless system, but the most significant are:
DAC/ADC:
Digital–analog and analog–digitalconverters, mixed signal devices, generate distor-tion through saturation, quantization noise, andspurs. For high-performance broadband wirelessapplications with adequate level control, 10effective bits with minimal oversampling are typ-ically enough not to degrade the overall SDR.
DAC/ADC clocks:
The sampling instants atboth transmitter and receiver will not be uniformspaced and will have slightly different rates.Even with timing tracking loops at the receiverto account for clock drifts, the residual timingphase noise or jitter will cause residual SDR.The timing jitter rms must be less than 1 percentof the data sampling rate for SDR > 30 dB.
Up/downconverter oscillators:
The frequencyconverters will introduce frequency drift and addphase noise. Even with phase tracking loops, theintegral of the phase noise beyond 1 percent of the OFDM tone width must be less than –30dBc to get SDR > 30 dB.
Linearity and dynamic range:
 All HW com-ponents introduce noise and have a limitedrange over which the signal can be processed without significantly distorting it. Thus, the sig-nal levels must be carefully controlled with acombination of power control and automaticgain control (AGC) to maximize the signal levelrelative to the HW noise without saturating thedevice. OFDM signals have slightly higher peakto average ratios (PARs) than other high-perfor-mance modulations, and extra care is required.The dynamic range and linearity requirements of OFDM can be made comparable to single-carri-er modulation with PAR reduction algorithms.
MIMO-OFDM A 
RCHITECTURE
The combined application of multi-antenna tech-nology and OFDM modulation (MIMO-OFDM) yields a unique physical layer capable of meetingthe requirements of a second-generation non-LOS system. Herein, we discuss some key designand algorithmic choices made in implementationof the Airburst modem.
Transmit Diversity 
— Many transmit diversityschemes have been proposed in the literatureoffering different complexity vs. performancetrade-offs. We chose delay diversity for downlinktransmission due to its simple implementation,good performance, and no feedback require-ment. In this scheme, the signal sent from thesecond antenna is a delayed copy of the signal atthe first antenna. The delay introduced at thetransmitter results in frequency selectivity in thereceived channel response. With proper codingand interleaving, space-frequency diversity gainis achieved without requiring any channel knowl-edge at the transmitter. Next-generation systemsystem design incorporates improved transmitdiversity schemes. Of particular interest arespace-time codes that require no feedback [7],and linear precoding based on channel statisticsthat requires minimal feedback [8]. In space-time coding, the same signal is encoded differ-ently into different streams to be transmittedacross multiple antennas. Block codes are attrac-tive since they allow linear decoding at thereceiver (e.g., the Alamouti scheme) [9]. In lin-ear precoding, the transmitted signals are linear-ly mapped onto multiple transmit antennas,depending on the slowly varying channel statis-tics such as transmit antenna correlation. Linear
The combined application of multi-antennatechnology and OFDMmodulation(MIMO-OFDM) yields a unique physical layer capable of meeting therequirements of a second- generationnon-LOS system.

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