In case of circuit breakers, their rupturing capacities arebased on the symmetrical short circuit current which is most easy tocalculate among all types of circuit currents. But for the determinationof relay settings, it is absolutely necessary to know fault current due tounsymmetrical condition too for which knowledge of symmetricalcomponents is required.
Depending on the location, the type, the duration, and thesystem grounding, short circuits may lead to• electromagnetic interference with conductors in the vicinity(disturbance of communication lines),• stability problems,• mechanical and thermal stress (i.e. damage of equipment, personaldanger)• danger for personnelIn high voltage networks, short circuits are the mostfrequent type of faults. Short circuits may be solid or may involve anarc impedance. Figure 1 illustrates different types of short circuits.