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This is a project report on topic "FAULT ANALYSIS IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING MATLAB" which I prepared in my final year at college.
This is a project report on topic "FAULT ANALYSIS IN TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING MATLAB" which I prepared in my final year at college.

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Published by: SHIKHAR KHANDELWAL on Jun 22, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 Any abnormal conditions which causes flow of huge currentin the conductors or cable through inappropriate paths in the circuitcan be defined as a fault. In normal operating conditions all the circuitelements of an electrical system carry currents whose magnitudedepends upon the value of the generator voltage and the effectiveimpedances of all the power transmission and distribution systemelements including the impedances of the loads usually relativelylarger than other impedances.Modern electric systems may be of great complexity andspread over large geographical area. An electric power systemconsists of generators, transformers, transmission lines and consumerequipment. The system must be protected against flow of heavy short-circuit currents, which can cause permanent damage to majorequipments, by disconnecting the faulty section of system by meansof circuit breaker and protective relaying. Such conditions are causedin the system accidentally through insulation failure of equipment orflashover of lines initiated by a lightning stroke or through accidentalfaulty operation. The safe disconnection can only be guaranteed if the currentdoes not exceed the capability of the circuit breaker. Therefore, theshort circuit currents in the network must be computed and comparedwith the ratings of the circuit breakers at regular intervals as part of the normal operation planning.The short circuit currents in an AC system are determinedmainly by the reactance of the alternators, transformers and lines uptothe point of the fault in the case of phase to phase faults. When thefault is between phase and earth, the resistance of the earth path playan important role in limiting the currents.Balanced three phase faults may be analyzed using anequivalent single phase circuit. With asymmetrical three phase faults,the use of symmetrical components help to reduce the complexity of the calculations as transmission lines and components are by andlarge symmetrical, although the fault may be asymmetrical. Faultanalysis is usually carried out in per-unit quantities as they givesolutions which are somewhat consistent over different voltage andpower ratings, and operate on values of the order of unity
In case of circuit breakers, their rupturing capacities arebased on the symmetrical short circuit current which is most easy tocalculate among all types of circuit currents. But for the determinationof relay settings, it is absolutely necessary to know fault current due tounsymmetrical condition too for which knowledge of symmetricalcomponents is required.
Depending on the location, the type, the duration, and thesystem grounding, short circuits may lead toelectromagnetic interference with conductors in the vicinity(disturbance of communication lines),• stability problems,• mechanical and thermal stress (i.e. damage of equipment, personaldanger)• danger for personnelIn high voltage networks, short circuits are the mostfrequent type of faults. Short circuits may be solid or may involve anarc impedance. Figure 1 illustrates different types of short circuits. 
FIGURE 1- Examples for different types of short circuits
A power network comprises synchronous generators,transformers, lines,and loads. Though the operating conditions at thetime of fault are important, the loads can usually be neglected duringshort circuits, as voltages dip very low so that currents drawn by loadscan be neglected in comparison with short circuit currents.The synchronous generator during short circuit has acharacteristic time varying behavior. In the event of a short circuit, theflux per pole undergoes dynamic change with associated transients indamper and field windings.The reactance of the circuit model of the machine changes inthe first few cycles from a low subtransient reactance to a highertransient value, finally settling at a still higher synchronous (steadystate) value. Depending upon the arc interruption time of the circuit

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Akshay Purohit reviewed this
Its nice.Which block is taken as the input? Pm and E?
ASHOK KHADOLIA added this note
sir plz send me matlab code to ashoksaini2810@gmail.com
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shine liked this
Akshay Purohit added this note
Pls send the simulink code to akspur123@gmail.com
Srinu Vasu added this note
sir please send the matlab code to srinivasu026@gmail.com
Mohammad Adel added this note
pleas send the code to mohmadslameh1@gmail.com
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