Summary and notes on: Plous, S. (Editor) (2003); Understanding prejudice and discrimination (pp. 3- 48).New York: McGraw-HillPrepared by Ariadna 73 Page 2 of 3
PrejudiceThe world has evolved, there is less racism, no legal slavery, women can vote, etc... But there arestill subtle manifestations, and scientists are after them: Subtle forms of prejudice (Subtle racism,subtle sexism)Symbolic: Opposition to minorities Ambivalent : Conflict between positive and negative feelingsModern: View racial minorities as making unfair demands Aversive: Personal aversion to minoritiesStereotypingThe author describes a "Nacirema" culture and says that they are pursuing economic success allthe time, while dedicated the rest of the time to their appearance. I thought it sounded as peoplefrom LA. And then the author says that the Nacirema name is written backwards, and that heknows that I have thought that the Nacirema was a undeveloped indigenous culture... Not surehow the author says he knows what I thought (especially when I didn't think that!)Where do we find stereotypes?Explicit and implicit biases
If you ask questions worded in a way that the answer has to be politically correct, you willbe able to better see the racial and other stereotypes (According to studies)The thing is that people have implicit biases, that they are unaware of Description of the "Implicit association test": where you try to associate words and theygrade you by the time of your response. People usually associate positive words withbright colors and negative words with dark colors, and expand that to races. We can't helpit and there are people that go to the Internet and take the test every day and they alwayshave a grade that indicate a negative bias toward dark colors and people of non-whiteraces
Stereotypes in the media
After watching certain commercials or magazines, the job interviewers trended to hiremore the males and whites than the females and non-whiteNo wonder now what is so difficult for a non-white to compete in this tight job market!With the potential employers viewing all those commercials the day before the interview!
Stereotypes from direct experience
If you see things coming together (like bacon and eggs) you kind of expect to see onewhen you see the other, and in the end, when you remember your experiences you can'ttell if you ate bacon alone or bacon with eggs, and decide that it was bacon with eggsmost of the time.Same thing when judging minorities: you see a couple of criminals of certain race, andyou trend to pair all the criminals with that raceThe illusory correlations occur more with negative things (non-white = criminal) than withpositive things (bacon = eggs)
Once you start stereotyping, is like walking a slippery slope and very difficult to go back (if ever going back)You also react to whatever stereotype is applied to you -even when you don't explicitlyknow that you have been stereotyped. Your body just know it and you act just as thestereotype... that is SO weird!
Consequences of stereotyping (This is -for me- the most disturbing part of this reading. Sorry for inserting my own thoughts here!)For example, in a study, violent rap music influence judgments among everyone (black andwhite) that black males are violent and unintelligentStereotype threat: In other study, people performed poorly in math if they had to write anessay on a fictional character called Tyrone Walker (who sounds black)... (That is so scary!)