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Enzyme Electrode

Enzyme Electrode

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Published by: vinod_kumar_mishra on Jun 23, 2009
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09/11/2014

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Tutorial Draft by Dr. V.K. Mishra, HOD, Biotechnology, Doon(P.G.)Paramedical College Dehradun
Enzyme Electrode: Enzyme based biosensor
 T 
What is a biosensor 
Various definitions and terminologies are used depending on the field of application. Biosensors are known as:
immunosensors 
,
optrodes 
,
chemical canaries 
,
resonant mirrors 
,
glucometers 
,
biochips 
,
biocomputers 
, and so on.A commonly cited definition is: “a biosensor is a chemical sensing device in which abiologically derived recognition entity is coupled to a transducer, to allow thequantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter”. “A biosensor is ananalytical device incorporating a deliberate and intimate combination of a specificbiological element (that creates a recognition event) and a physical element (thattransduces the recognition event)”. The name “biosensor” signifies that thedevice is a combination of two parts:(i) a bio-element, andii) a sensor-element. The basic concepts of a biosensor’s operation can be illustrated with the followingfigure1.
Elements of Biosensors :
A biosensoressentially comprise of the following
two 
major parts, namely :(
)
Biological component – 
i.e.,
forsensing the presence as well asconcentration of an analyte.Thebioelement may be an enzyme,antibody, living cells, tissue, etc.,and(
)
Transducer device
 — 
i.e.,
anasembly that actually converts the
 biochemical signal
into thecorresponding
electrical signal
 whichmay be adequately amplified and readfinally either on a
digital panel 
orrecorded on a suitable
recordingdevice
.
 
Tutorial Draft by Dr. V.K. Mishra, HOD, Biotechnology, Doon(P.G.)Paramedical College Dehradun
 The schematic outline of a biosensor exhibiting the various integral componentsassociated with it is given in fig.2
ElectrochemicalElectrode or EnzymeElectrodeElectrochemical electrodes
(or
Enzyme eletrodes
) are a new type of 
detector 
or
biosensor 
that have been exclusively designed for the
potentiometric
or
amperometric
assay of substrates, for instance : alcohol, amino acids, glucose, andlactic acid.The enzyme electrode is a combination of any electrochemical probe(amperometric, potentiometric or conductimetric ) with a thin layer (10 - 200mm) of immobilised enzyme.
History
Enzyme electrodes are a type of biosensor that have enzyme as a biologicalcomponent. The history of biosensors started in the year 1962 with the development of amperometric enzyme electrode for glucose by the scientist Leland C. Clark. The year1969 marks first potentiometric biosensor:urease immobilized on an ammoniaelectrode to detect urea.During the year 1972-75, first commercial glucose biosensor
 
Tutorial Draft by Dr. V.K. Mishra, HOD, Biotechnology, Doon(P.G.)Paramedical College Dehradun
 was developed by yellow spring instruments. Since then, several biosensors includingenzyme electrodes were developed.
Design
 The
electrochemical electrode(enzyme electrode)
is composed of a
electrochemical sensor 
 which
 
in close contact with a
thin-permeable enzyme membrane.
 Theembedded enzymes located in the membrane produce products, such as H
+
ions,oxygen (O
2
), NH
4+
ions, carbon dioxide (CO
2
) or ever other small molecules dependingsolely on the enzymatic reactions , that are rapidly detected by the particular sensor . The magnitude of the response gives the precise estimations of the prevailingconcentration of the substrate. The
biological component 
present in a
 biosensor
may invariably be
an enzyme
or a
multi-enzyme system,
that could also be an
antibody 
or
organelle 
or
microbial cell 
oreven
whole slices of tissue.
In these devices, enzyme is combined with electrochemical probe .The out put of device would be in terms of current (amperometric), voltage (potentiometric) orconductivity (conductimetric).)
 Types of Enzyme Electodes1. Amperometric Enzyme Electrode2. Potentiometric Enzyme Electrode3.
 
Conductimetric
 
Enzyme Electrode

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