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basic electronics MG m1 PDF

# basic electronics MG m1 PDF

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this material covers th entire syllabus of basic electronis for 1st yeat MG university students.. it discribes things in simple manner and its diagrams really helps to understand the full concept....god bless u
this material covers th entire syllabus of basic electronis for 1st yeat MG university students.. it discribes things in simple manner and its diagrams really helps to understand the full concept....god bless u

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12/28/2012

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BASIC ELECTRONICS
M#2
Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL
Page 1 of 28

S1S2 2008
(AJCE Koovappally, Kanjirappally)
MODULE #2
Basic electronic circuits

BASIC ELECTRONICS
M#2
Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL
Page 2 of 28

S1S2 2008
(AJCE Koovappally, Kanjirappally)
THE RECTIFIER
From previous discussions, you should know that rectification is theconversion of an alternating current to a pulsating direct current. Now let'ssee how the process of RECTIFICATION occurs in both a half-wave and afull-wave rectifier.
The Half-Wave Rectifier
Since a silicon diode will pass current in only one direction, it isideally suited for converting alternating current (ac) to direct current (dc).When ac voltage is applied to a diode, the diode conducts ONLY ON THEPOSITIVE ALTERNATION OF VOLTAGE; that is, when the anode of the diodeis positive with respect to the cathode. This simplest type of rectifier is the half-wave rectifier. As shown inview A of figure 4-3, the half-wave rectifier uses only one diode. During thepositive alternation of input voltage, the sine wave applied to the diodemakes the anode positive with respect to the cathode. The diode thenconducts, and current (I) flows from the negative supply lead (the secondaryof the transformer), through the milliammeter, through the diode, and to thepositive supply lead.As indicated by the shaded area of the output waveform in view B,this current exists during the entire period of time that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode (in other words, for the first 180 degrees of theinput sine wave). (AMMETER TO MEASURE i)Figure 4-3A. - Simple half-wave rectifier. HALF-WAVE RECTIFIERFigure 4-3B. - Simple half-wave rectifier. OUTPUT WAVEFORM

BASIC ELECTRONICS
M#2
Prepared by : BINOSHI SAMUVEL
Page 3 of 28

S1S2 2008
(AJCE Koovappally, Kanjirappally)
During the negative alternationof input voltage (dotted polaritysigns), the anode is driven negativeand the diode cannot conduct. Whenconditions such as these exist, thediode is in cutoff and remains incutoff for 180 degrees, during whichtime no current flows in the circuit. The circuit current thereforehas the appearance of a series of positive pulses, as illustrated by theshaded areas on the waveform inview B. Notice that although the current is in the form of pulses, the currentalways flows in the same direction. Current that flows in pulses in the samedirection is called PULSATING DC. The diode has thus RECTIFIED the acinput voltage.Rms, Peak, and Average ValuesView A of figure 4-4 is a comparison of the rms, peak, and averagevalues of the types of waveforms associated with the half-wave rectifier. Acvoltages are normally specified in terms of their rms values. Thus, when a115-volt ac power source is mentioned in this chapter, it is specifying therms value of 115 volts ac. In terms of peak values,E
rms
= E
peak
X .707 The peak value is always higher than the rms value. In fact,E
peak
= E
rms
X 1.414therefore, if the rms valueis 115 volts ac, then thepeak value must be:E
peak
= E
rms
X 1.414E
peak
= 115 volts ac X1.414E
peak
= 162.6 volts