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Modelling & Simulation of Binary Distillation Column

Modelling & Simulation of Binary Distillation Column

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Published by: priyankthada on Jun 23, 2009
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07/08/2013

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“MODELLING & SIMULATION OF BINARYDISTILLATION COLUMN”
 
CONTENTS
Introduction
Vapour Liquid Equilibrium
Types of Distillation1.Batch Distillation2.Continuous Distillation
Simple Distillation
Flash Evaporation
Fractional Distillation
Types of Azeotropes
Separation of Azeotropes
Steam Distillation
Vacuum Distillation
Extractive Distillation
Theoretical plates
Methods of calculating no. of stages1.Fenske Equation2.McCabe-Thiele Method
Modelling of McCabe-Thiele Method
Assumptions of McCabe-Thiele Method
Introduction to Simulation
Flow Chart of Simulation Program
Problem
Discussion & Conclusion
 
Appendix
Bibliography
Introduction
A process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances isseparated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the applicationand removal of heat.Or in other words:
Distillation
is a widely used method for separatingmixtures based on differences in the conditions required to change the phaseof components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the liquidcan be heated to force components, which have different boiling points, intothe gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and collected.Repeating the process on the collected liquid to improve the purity of the product is called double distillation. Although the term is most commonlyapplied to liquids, the reverse process can be used to separate gases byliquefying components using changes in temperature and/or pressure.Distillation is used for many commercial processes, such as production of gasoline, distilled water, xylene, alcohol, paraffin, kerosene, and many other liquids. Types of distillation include simple distillation (described here),fractional distillation (different volatile 'fractions' are collected as they are produced), and destructive distillation (usually, a material is heated so that itdecomposes into compounds for collection). Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will bericher in the components that have lower boiling points.Therefore, when this vapour is cooled and condensed, the condensate willcontain more volatile components. At the same time, the original mixturewill contain more of the less volatile material. Distillation columns aredesigned to achieve this separation efficiently.Although many people have a fair idea what “distillation” means, theimportant aspects that seem to be missed from the manufacturing point of view are that:
 
Distillation is the most common separation technique.
It consumes enormous amounts of energy, both in terms of coolingand heating requirements.
It can contribute to more than 50% of plant operating costs.The best way to reduce operating costs of existing units, is to improve their efficiency and operation via process optimization and control. To achievethis improvement, a thorough understanding of distillation principles andhow distillation systems are designed is essential.The Distillation of the Crude Oil in Oil Refinery can be represented by:

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