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RSA

# RSA

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01/26/2011

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RSA Security
RSA was invented by Rivest, Shamir andAldleman in 1978 (the 2003 winners oTurning award).
RSA is the
best known
public-key cryp-tosystem.
RSA is the ﬁrst practical realisation of therevolutionary notion of public-key cryptog-raphy invented by Diﬃe and Hellman in1976.
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RSA Cryptosystem
Problems Used:
Factorisation. The mod-ulus
=
p
×
q
is public, the primes
p,q
aresecret.
Message Space:
M
=
.
Cryptogram Space:
C
=
.
Public Key:
A random integer
e
;gcd(
e,ϕ
(
)) = 1.
Secret Key:
An integer
d
such that
d
·
e
1 (mod (
p
1)(
q
1)).
Encryption:
c
=
e
(
m
)
m
e
(mod
).
Decryption:
m
=
D
d
(
c
)
c
d
(mod
).
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Factorisation
=
breaking RSA
If you can factor
, how can you breakRSA?
Attack:
Find
p
and
q
such that
=
pq
Compute
ϕ
(
) = (
p
1)(
q
1)
Compute the secret key
d
from the pub-lic key
e
and
ϕ
(
). That is, the at-tacker computes
d
=
e
1
(mod
ϕ
(
))using the Euclidean algorithm.
It has been
conjectured
that breaking RSAis polynomially equivalent to factoring
,but this remains unproved (note:
two prob-lems are said to be
polynomially equivalent
if theexistence of a polynomial-time algorithm for eitherproblem implies the existence of a polynomial-timealgorithm for the other problem
).
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