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Table Of Contents

2.2 Cartesian Coordinate Systems
2.3 Projective Coordinate Systems
2.4 Translational Motions
2.4.1 Linear Displacement
2.4.2 Linear Velocity and Acceleration
2.5 Rotational Motions
2.5.1 Circular Displacement
2.5.2 Circular Velocity and Acceleration
2.6 Composite Motions
2.6.1 Homogenous Transformation
2.6.2 Differential Homogenous Transformation
2.6.3 Successive Elementary Translations
2.6.4 Successive Elementary Rotations
2.6.5 Euler Angles
2.6.6 Equivalent Axis and Angle of Rotation
3.3 Robot Kinematics
3.3.1 Kinematics of a Link
3.3.1.1 Assignment of a Link's Frame
3.3.1.2 Geometric Parameters of a Link
3.3.1.3 Motion Transformation Matrix of a Link
3.3.1.4 Linear/Circular Velocity of a Link
3.3.1.5 Angular Velocity of a Link
3.3.2 Forward Kinematics of Open Kinematic-Chains
3.3.2.1 Determination of the End-effector's Posture
3.3.2.2 Determination of the End-effector's Velocity
3.3.3 Inverse Kinematics of Open Kinematic-Chains
3.3.3.1 Determination of Joint Displacements
3.3.3.2 Determination of Joint Velocities
3.3.3.3 Numerical Solution for Joint Displacements
3.3.3.4 Effect of Singularity
3.3.4 Discrete Kinematic Mapping
3.3.4.1 Discrete Forward Kinematic-Mapping
3.3.4.2 Discrete Inverse Kinematic-Mapping
3.3.4.3 Bidirectional Discrete Kinematic-Mapping
3.3.4.4 Application of Discrete Kinematic-Mapping
3.4 Summary
3.5 Exercises
3.6 Bibliography
Electromechanical System of Robots
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Origin of a Rigid Body's Motion
4.2.1 Energy Conservation in a System
4.2.2 Forces
4.2.3 Torques
4.2.4 Dynamic Pairs and Chains
4.2.5 Incremental Works
4.2.6 Potential Energy
4.2.7 Kinetic Energy
4.2.8 Origin of Motions
4.3 Actuation Elements
4.3.1 Force and Torque Generators
4.3.1.1 Working Principle of Electric Motors
4.3.1.2 Electric Stepper Motors
4.3.1.3 Brush-type DC Motors
4.3.1.4 Brush-less DC Motors
4.3.2 Force and Torque Amplifiers
4.3.2.1 Gear Mechanisms
4.3.2.2 Pulley-and-Timing Belt Assemblies
4.3.2.3 Harmonic-Drive Devices
4.4 Formation of a Robot's Electromechanical System
4.4.1 One-to-One Couplings
4.4.2 One-to-Many Couplings
4.4.2.1 Motion Distributors
4.4.2.2 Parallel Splitter of Motion
4.4.2.3 Serial Splitter of Motion
4.6.1 Dynamic System of Rigid Bodies
4.6.2 Dynamics of a Rigid Body
4.6.2.1 Motion Equations of a Rigid Body
4.6.2.2 Potential Energy of a Rigid Body
4.6.2.3 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body
4.6.3 Newton-Euler Formula
4.6.3.1 Kinematic Parameters of a Link
4.6.3.2 Dynamic Parameters of a Link
4.6.3.3 Sum of Forces of a Link
4.6.3.4 Sum of Torques of a Link
4.6.3.5 Equation of Linear Motion of a Link
4.6.3.6 Equation of Angular Motion of a Link
4.6.3.7 Recursive Algorithm for Forces/Torques
4.6.4 Euler-Lagrange Formula
4.6.4.1 D'Alembert Principle
4.6.4.2 Lagrange Formula
4.6.4.3 Equations of Motion
4.7 Summary
4.8 Exercises
4.9 Bibliography
Control System of Robots
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Automatic-Feedback Control System
5.2.1 System Concept
5.2.2 Closed-loop Control Scheme
5.2.3 System Dynamics
5.2.4 Transfer Functions
5.2.5 System Performance
5.2.6 Analysis of Absolute Stability
5.2.6.1 Root-Locus Method
5.2.6.2 Lyapunov's Method
5.2.7 Tuning of PID Control Algorithms
5.3 Control Elements
5.3.1 Power Switches
5.3.1.1 Power Switches for Stepper Motors
5.3.1.2 Power Switches for Brush-type DC Motors
5.3.1.3 Power Switches for Brush-less DC Motors
5.3.2 Power Drives
5.3.2.1 Linear Power Drives
5.4.3.2 Potentiometers
5.4.3.3 Absolute Optical Encoders
5.4.3.4 Incremental Optical Encoders
5.4.4 Force/Torque Sensors
5.4.4.1 Indirect Measurement
5.4.4.2 Direct Measurement
5.4.5 Tactile Sensors
5.5 Control System Design
5.5.1 Issues
5.5.2 Planning of Desired Outputs
5.5.3 A Robot's System Dynamics
5.5.3.1 Dynamics of a Robot's Mechanism
5.5.3.2 Dynamics of Speed Reducers
5.5.3.3 Dynamics of Electric Motors
5.5.4 Sensory Feedback
5.5.5 Control Algorithms and Performances
5.5.5.1 PID Control Laws
5.5.5.2 Variable Structure Control
5.5.6 Joint-Space Control
5.5.6.1 Planning of Desired Outputs
5.5.6.2 System Dynamics
5.5.6.3 Centralized Joint Control Scheme
5.5.6.4 Independent Joint Control Scheme
5.5.7 Task-Space Control
5.5.7.1 Planning of Desired Outputs
5.5.7.2 Posture Control in Task Space
5.5.7.3 Force Compliance Control
5.5.7.4 Hybrid Force and Trajectory Control
5.5.7.5 Impedance Control
5.5.8 Image-Space Control
5.5.8.1 Scenarios
5.5.8.2 Objectives
5.5.8.3 Methodologies
5.6 Summary
5.7 Exercises
5.8 Bibliography
Information System of Robots
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Imitating the Brain
6.3 Imitating the Mind
6.3.1 Autonomous Actors or Agents
6.3.2 Autonomous Behaviors
6.3.3 Computational Tasks
6.4 Data-Processing Hardware
6.4.1 Digital Computers
6.4.2 Microprocessors
6.4.2.1 Memory
6.4.2.2 Number Representation
6.4.2.3 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
6.4.2.4 Bus
6.4.2.5 Generic Architecture of Computers
6.4.2.6 Cycle-by-Cycle Operations
6.4.2.7 Generic Architecture of a Microprocessor
6.5.1.5 The Basics of C-Programming Language
6.5.2 Multi- Tasking
6.5.2.1 The Basics of Multi- Tasking
6.5.2.2 Cooperative Multi-Tasking
6.5.2.3 Preemptive Multi-Tasking
6.5.3 Real-Time Operating Systems
6.6 Data Storage and Retrieval
6.6.1 Storage Devices
6.6.2 A File System
6.6.3 Data Storage Using Unformatted Files
6.6.4 Data Storage Using a File System
6.6.5 Data Storage Using Formatted Files
6.7 Data Interfacing and Communication
6.7.1 Basic Concepts
6.7.1.1 I/O Registers
6.7.1.2 I/O Ports
6.7.1.3 Communication Networks
6.7.1.4 Common Issues
6.7.1.5 Procedure of Programming I/O Systems
6.7.2 D/A Converters
6.7.3 A/D Converters
6.7.4 Parallel I/O
6.7.4.1 Device Control with Parallel I/O Systems
6.7.4.2 Interfacing for Data Communication
6.7.4.3 Strobed Parallel I/O
6.7.4.4 Full Handshake Parallel I/O
6.7.5 Serial I/O
6.7.5.1 Interfacing for Data Communication
6.7.5.2 Bit-oriented Data Framing
6.7.5.3 Synchronous Serial I/O
6.7.5.4 Asynchronous Serial I/O
6.7.6 Programmable Timers
6.7.6.1 Active Signal Output
6.7.6.2 Active Signal Capture
6.7.6.3 Self-generating Real-time Interrupt
6.8 Summary
6.9 Exercises
6.10 Bibliography
Visual Sensory System of Robots
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Basics of Light
7.2.1 Physical Properties
7.2.2 Geometrical Properties
7.2.3 Refraction of Light Rays by a Thin Lens
7.3 The Basics of the Human Eye
7.3.1 Eyeballs
7.3.2 Photosensitive Cells
7.3.3 Central Vision
7.3.4 Peripheral Vision
7.4 Digital Image Acquisition
7.4.1 Formation of Optical Images
7.4.1.1 Optical-Image Focusing
7.4.1.2 Control of Incoming Light
7.4.1.3 Light Splitting & Color Filtering
7.4.2 Formation of Electronic Images
7.4.2.1 Photoelectric Effect
7.4.2.2 CMOS Imaging Sensors
7.4.2.3 CCD Imaging Sensors
7.4.3 Formation of Digital Images
7.4.3.1 Analogue Videos
7.4.3.2 Digitization of Analogue Videos
7.5 Modelling of Digital Images
7.5.1 Chromatic Modelling
7.5.1.1 Representation in RGB Color Space
7.5.1.2 Representation of Intensity Images
7.5.2 Geometric Modelling
7.5.2.1 Pin-hole Model and Perspective Projection
7.5.2.2 Assignment of Camera Coordinate Systems
7.5.2.3 Assignment of Image Coordinate Systems
7.5.2.4 Determination of Image Coordinates
7.5.2.5 Determination of Index Coordinates
7.5.2.6 Intrinsic Parameters of Cameras
7.6 Digital Image-Processing Hardware
7.6.1 Host Computers
7.6.2 DSP Processors
7.6.3 Pipelined Computing Modules
7.6.4 Parallel Computing Platforms
7.7 Summary
7.8 Exercises
7.9 Bibliography
Visual Perception System of Robots
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Basics of Visual Perception
8.2.1 A Process of Visual Perception
8.2.2 Attributes of Visual Perception
8.2.3 Applications of Visual Perception
8.2.4 Information Processing in Visual Perception
8.3 Image Processing
8.3.1 Image Transformation
8.3.1.1 Frequency-domain Transforms
8.3.1.2 Time-domain Transforms
8.3.1.3 Spatial Transforms
8.3.2 Image Filtering
8.3.2.1 Convolutions
8.3.2.2 Derivative of Convolutions
8.3.2.3 Integral of Convolutions
8.3.2.4 Spatial Displacement of Convolutions
8.4 Image Feature Extraction
8.4.1 The Basics of Feature Detection
8.4.1.1 Feature Definition
8.4.1.2 A Generic Procedure for Feature Detection
8.4.1.3 Criteria for Feature Detection
8.4.2 Edge Detection
8.4.2.1 Definition of Edges
8.4.2.2 Types of Edges
8.4.2.3 A General Scheme for Edge Detection
8.4.2.4 Sobel Edge Detector
8.4.2.6 Canny and Deriche Edge Detectors
8.4.2.7 Summary of Edge-Detection Algorithm
8.4.3 Corner Detection
8.4.3.1 Definition of Corners
8.4.3.2 Zero-gradient Corner Detector
8.4.3.3 Other Corner Detectors
8.4.4 Spatial Uniformity Detection
8.4.4.1 Definition of Image Regions
8.4.4.2 A General Scheme for Uniformity Detection
8.4.4.3 Color Detection
8.4.5 Temporal Uniformity Detection
8.4.5.1 Definition of Image Templates
8.4.5.2 Template Matching
8.4.6 Temporal Discontinuity Detection
8.5 Geometric-Feature Description
8.5.1 The Basics of Feature Description
8.5.2 Feature Grouping
8.5.2.1 Types of Neighborhoods
8.5.2.2 Pixel Clustering
8.5.2.3 Boundary Tracing
8.5.2.4 Edge Linking
8.5.3 Contour Splitting
8.5.3.1 Successive Linear Curves
8.5.3.2 Successive Nonlinear Curves
8.5.4 Curve Fitting
8.5.4.1 Line-Segment Approximation
8.5.4.2 Circular-Arc Approximation
8.5.4.3 Elliptic-Arc Approximation
8.6 Geometry Measurement
8.6.1 Monocular Vision
8.6.1.1 Forward Projective-Mapping
8.6.1.2 Simulation of Monocular Vision
8.6.1.3 Inverse Projective-Mapping
8.6.1.4 Camera Calibration
8.6.1.5 Determining the Parameters of Cameras
8.6.2 Binocular Vision
8.6.2.1 Forward Projective-Mapping
8.6.2.2 Inverse Projective-Mapping
8.6.2.3 Unresolved Issue: Binocular Correspondence
8.6.2.4 Continuous Epipolar-Line Constraint
8.6.2.5 Discrete Epipolar-Line Constraint
8.6.2.6 Differential Epipolar-Line Constraint
8.7 Summary
8.8 Exercises
8.9 Bibliography
Decision-Making System of Robots
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The Basics of Decision Making
9.2.1 The Key to Automated Actions
9.2.2 The Key to Automated Behaviors
9.2.3 Decision-Making Processes
9.2.3.1 Inputs of Decision-Making
9.2.3.2 Outputs of Decision-Making
9.2.4 Difficulties in Decision-Making
9.2.4.1 Uncertainty
9.2.4.2 Redundancy
9.2.5 Methodologies in Decision-Making
9.2.5.1 Expert Knowledge
9.2.5.2 Statistical Inference
9.2.5.3 Fuzzy Inference
9.2.5.4 Neural Network
9.3 Decision Making for Autonomous Behaviors
9.3.1 Task or Scenario Planning
9.3.1.1 A Goal Description as Input
9.3.1.2 A Task Sequence as Output
9.3.1.3 The Task-Planning Process
9.3.2 Action or Behavior Planning
9.3.2.1 A Task Description as Input
9.3.2.2 An Action Sequence as Output
9.3.2.3 The Action-Planning Process
9.3.3 Motion Planning
9.3.3.1 An Action Description as Input
9.3.3.2 A Motion Sequence as Output
9.3.3.3 The Motion-Planning Process
9.3.4 A General Framework for Automated Planning
9.4 The Basics of Motion Planning
9.4.1 Path and Trajectory
9.4.2 Motion-Planning Strategy
9.4.2.1 Forward Planning
9.4.2.2 Backward Planning
9.4.2.3 Formation Planning
9.5 Motion Planning in Task Space
9.5.1 Planning of Collision-Free Paths
9.5.1.1 A Discrete and Normalized Workspace
9.5.1.2 A Path Map
9.5.1.3 A Collision-Free Path
9.5.1.4 Constraints of Robots
9.5.2 Motion Description
9.5.2.1 Linear Curves
9.5.2.2 Circular Curves
9.5.2.3 Paths
9.5.2.4 Trajectories
9.5.2.5 Interpolation of Orientations
9.6 Image-Guided Motion Planning and Control
9.6.1 Hand-Eye Coordination
9.6.1.1 Input
9.6.1.2 Output
9.6.1.3 A Closed-form Solution
9.6.1.4 An Iterative Approach
9.6.2 Head-Eye Coordination
9.6.2.1 Input
9.6.2.2 Output
9.6.2.3 A Closed-form Solution
9.6.2.4 Iterative Approaches
9.6.3 Leg-Eye Coordination
9.6.3.1 Image-Guided Road Following
9.6.3.2 Image-Guided Target Following
9.7 Summary
9.8 Exercises
9.9 Bibliography
Index
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Fundamentals of Robotics

Fundamentals of Robotics

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