participate in processes that help maintain thechemical balance and biological composition of natural environments.The microbial activities involved in the natural cycling of carbon,nitrogen and sulphur are harnessed in the designs of sewage andindustrial waste water treatment facilities. Microorganisms are alsovital in the preparation and preservation of many foods and beverages.The product of microbial metabolism are commercially valuable;without microorganisms there would be no antibiotics and manyamino-acids, vitamins and enzymes would be unavoidable or tooexpensive. The 1980s have witnessed an advanced biotechnology inwhich breakthroughs in molecular biology have enabled geneticmanipulation of biologic systems. This technology has the potential tosignificantly alter the relationship between humankind and all the restof the living world, on a scale so vast that its dimensions are only beginning to be understood.
:The dynamic interaction of the microbes with the physical andchemical make up of world’s many ecosystems is the subject of environmental microbiology. The environment is the naturalsurroundings around us. Habitat is the physical space or location wherea species live.Microbial populations play an essential role in maintaining anecological balance between the biomass and the available nutrients.Our natural environment is taken for granted by most of us, until it isaltered in same way, as by overuse or pollution. Preservation of anatural environment is heavily dependent on the role microbes play inmaintaining the chemical balance between available nutrients and inmetabolizing waste products. Pollutants most often the chemical