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Wilson C. - Quantitative Methods in Reservoir Engineering

Wilson C. - Quantitative Methods in Reservoir Engineering

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Published by Aditya Ariewijaya

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Published by: Aditya Ariewijaya on Sep 10, 2013
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Contents
Preface, xi1.Motivating Ideas and Governing Equations, 1
Examples of incorrect formulations, 3Darcy’s equations for flow in porous media, 7Logarithmic solutions and beyond, 11Fundamental aerodynamic analogies, 12Problems and exercises, 18
2.Fracture Flow Analysis, 19
Example 2-1.Single straight-line fracture in an isotropic circular reservoir containing incompressible fluid, 19Example 2-2.Line fracture in an anisotropic reservoir withincompressible liquids and compressible gases, 27Example 2-3.Effect of nonzero fracture thickness, 32Example 2-4.Flow rate boundary conditions, 34Example 2-5.Uniform vertical velocity along the fracture, 35Example 2-6.Uniform pressure along the fracture, 37Example 2-7.More general fracture pressure distributions, 38Example 2-8.Velocity conditions for gas flows, 39Example 2-9.Determining velocity fields, 40Problems and exercises, 41
3.Flows Past Shaly Bodies, 43
Example 3-1.Straight-line shale segment in uniform flow, 43Example 3-2.Curved shale segment in uniform flow, 49Example 3-3.Mineralized faults, anisotropy, and gas flow, 49Problems and exercises, 50
4.Streamline Tracing and Complex Variables, 52
Discussion 4-1.The classical streamfunction, 52Discussion 4-2.Streamfunction for general fluids in heterogeneous andanisotropic formations, 55Discussion 4-3.Subtle differences between pressure and streamfunctionformulations, 57Discussion 4-4.Streamline tracing in the presence of multiple wells, 60
 
viDiscussion 4-5.Streamfunction expressions for distributed line sourcesand vortexes, 63Discussion 4-6.Streamfunction solution using complex variablestechniques, 65Discussion 4-7.Circle Theorem: Exact solutions to Laplace’s equation, 66Discussion 4-8.Generalized streamline tracing and volume flow ratecomputations, 68Discussion 4-9.Streamline tracing in 3D flows, 70Discussion 4-10. Tracer movement in 3D reservoirs, 73Fluid flow instabilities, 76Problems and exercises, 78
5.Flows in Complicated Geometries, 79
What is conformal mapping? 80Using “simple” complex variables, 82Example 5-1.The classic radial flow solution, 84Example 5-2.Circular borehole with two symmetric radial fractures, 86Example 5-3.Circular borehole with two uneven, opposite, radialfractures; or a single radial fracture, 88Example 5-4.Circular borehole with multiple radial fractures, 89Example 5-5.Straight shale segment at arbitrary angle, 91Example 5-6.Infinite array of straight-line shales, 94Example 5-7.Pattern wells under aquifer drive, 95Three-dimensional flows, 96Example 5-8.Point spherical flow, 97Example 5-9.Finite line source with prescribed pressure, 97Example 5-10. Finite line source with prescribed flow rate, 99Example 5-11. Finite conductivity producing fracture havinglimited areal extent, 100Example 5-12. Finite conductivity nonproducing fracture havinglimited areal extent, 101Borehole interactions, 101Example 5-13. Producing fracture near multiple wells under aquifer drive, 102Example 5-14. Producing fractures near multiple wells in solidwall reservoirs, 103Example 5-15. Straight-line shale segment near multiple wells inuniform flow, 104Examples 5-16 and 5-17. Nonproducing faults in solid wall andaquifer-driven reservoirs, 105Example 5-18. Highly curved fractures and shales, 106Problems and exercises, 107
6.Radial Flow Analysis, 108
Example 6-1.Steady liquids in homogeneous media, 108Example 6-2.Simple front tracking for liquids in homogeneous,isotropic media, 109
 
viiExample 6-3.Steady-state gas flows in homogeneous, isotropic media, 111Transient compressible flows, 113Example 6-4.Numerical solution for steady flow, 114Example 6-5.Explicit and implicit schemes for transient compressibleliquids, 116Example 6-6.Transient compressible gas flows, 118Problems and exercises, 121
7.Finite Difference Methods for Planar Flows, 122
Finite differences: basic concepts, 122Formulating steady flow problems, 126Steady flow problems: seven case studies, 128Isotropy and anisotropy: fluid invasion in cross-bedded sands, 153Problems and exercises, 158
8.Curvilinear Coordinates and Numerical Grid Generation, 160
General coordinate transformations, 162Thompson’s mapping, 163Some reciprocity relations, 164Conformal mapping revisited, 165Solution of mesh generation equations, 167Problems and exercises, 172
9.Steady-State Reservoir Applications, 174
Governing equations, 176Steady areal flow: generalized log r solution, 177Streamline tracing in curvilinear coordinates, 181Calculated steady flow examples, 183Example 9-1.Well in Houston, 184Example 9-2.Well in Dallas, 189Example 9-3.Well in center of Texas, 190Example 9-4.Fracture across Texas, 192Example 9-5.Isothermal and adiabatic gas flows, 194Mesh generation: several remarks, 197Problems and exercises, 201
10.Transient Compressible Flows: Numerical Well TestSimulation, 202
Example 10-1.Transient pressure drawdown, 203Example 10-2.Transient pressure buildup, 207Problems and exercises, 211
11.Effective Properties in Single and Multiphase Flows, 212
Example 11-1.Constant density liquid in steady linear flow, 212Example 11-2.Lineal multiphase flow in two serial cores, 215Example 11-3.Effective properties in steady cylindrical flows, 219Example 11-4.Steady, single-phase, heterogeneous flows, 219Example 11-5.Time scale for compressible transients, 219Problems and exercises, 221

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