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Magnetic materials

Magnetic materials

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Magnetic materials
Magnetic materials

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Published by: warezisgr8 on Sep 11, 2013
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Magnetic Materials
 
Basic Concept Behind Magnetism
Circulating current sets up a magneticmoment (
m
m
) perpendicular to the current
 –
This results in a B field (magnetic field) that mustterminate back on itself (all magnets must have a
north & south, can’t be alone like electrical charge)
 
Electrons in atoms are the sameconcept-circulating charge that sets up amagnetic moment and a magnetic field
 –
The magnetic field is due to both the orbital angular momentum
and the spin
 –
Only electrons in unfilled shells contribute to a net magnetization(as those in full shells will cancel each other out)
 
 I  A
 – 
e
 
orb
 L
 
 Atomic Dipole Moment
Magnetic dipole moment:
(orbital)
Electron current loop acts like a magnetic dipole with
dipole moment,
μ
orb
=
I
.A = (-e/2m)Lwhere L is angular momentum of electron
Magnetic dipole moment:
(spin)
Electron rotates about its axis with dipole moment
μ
s
=(-e/m)S, where S is spin angular momentum of electron
Net magnetization is due to magnetic momentsfrom both forms of angular momentum
However, only electrons in un-filled shellscontribute to an overall magnetic moment
Current loop in an atom
 A =
π
2
I
= e(
ω
/2
π
)L = mr 
2
ω
 
Fleming RH rulee/2m = gyromagnetic ratio,relates
μ
m
to L (of q.mech)g. ratio = e/m,no classical deriv
n

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