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BBAA.pdf

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1
BBAA VI International Colloquium on:Bluff Bodies Aerodynamics & ApplicationsMilano, Italy, July, 20-24 2008
CALCULATION OF THE CROSSWIND DISPLACEMENT OFPANTOGRAPHS
Abdessalem Bouferrouk
*
, Chris J Baker
*
, Mark Sterling
*
H O’Neil
+
and S Wood
+
*
School of Civil EngineeringThe University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UKe-mail:A.Bouferrouk@bham.ac.uk 
+
Interfleet Technology Ltd, Interfleet House, Pride Parkway, Debry, DE24 8HX, UK
Keywords:
Crosswind, Aerodynamic Admittance, Weighting Function, Pantograph, Contact Wire
Abstract
The static crosswind displacements of a high speed pantograph and contact wire arestudied. The aim is to assess the overall pantograph sway in crosswinds based on the relativemovements of the pantograph and contact wire, taking into account the crosswind deflectionof the train body. The pantograph and wire deflections are derived from simplified models of such structures, whereas train body displacements are computed via Vampire. A spectral ap- proach is used to simulate the turbulent crosswind, which is then used with aerodynamic ad-mittance function to obtain unsteady crosswind loading. Analysis of data shows negligiblecrosswind deflections of the pantograph itself in the range of few millimeters, but train bodyand wire deflections are much larger. It is shown that crosswinds may cause the pantographsway to exceed prescribed limits for some combinations of wind gust and track conditions.
 
1
 
INTRODUCTION
The issue of high speed train reaction to crosswinds has been the subject of many researchstudies, both experimental and computational. This project is a summary of current work be-ing undertaken at the University of Birmingham, UK, which encompasses the two studies byBaker et al. [1] and Sterling et al. [2]. It is a sponsored project that was carried out incollaboration with Interfleet Technology, Derby, UK, to investigate the sway of trainpantographs in high crosswinds, to ensure the displacement of pantograph relative to thecontact wire is kept within acceptable limits. As will be seen, the study consists of undertaking wind tunnel tests of a scaled model of a high speed train in crosswinds. Theexperimental data will be used to develop analytical formulations for predicting pantographand contact wire deflections in high crosswinds. Interfleet Technology were then able toinput these deflections in a dynamic model of the UK Class 365 EMU train to determine theoverall pantograph sway for a wide range of crosswind and train speeds.Increasing the speed and decreasing the weight of high speed trains have led to increasedsensitivity to crosswind effects [3]. In particular, calculation of the overturning risk of trainshas received considerable interest; see for example [4] and [5]. To complement such work,this study investigates in addition to train displacement, the pantograph and contact wire static
 
Abdessalem Bouferrouk, Mark Sterling and Chris J Baker
2movements under crosswinds. Knowledge of pantograph and wire deflections is important intrain operations because if such displacements are appreciable enough, they may cause con-tact loss between the pantograph and contact wire, leading to loss of electrical power supply(or dewirement). The important aerodynamic forces affecting the train body, its pantograph,and the contact wire in crosswinds consist of lift and side force components. In this work,only the effects of side force are considered. Some previous research has looked into thecrosswind interaction with the catenary and contact wire, e.g. [6], while currently there is aEuropean interest regarding the combined effects of crosswinds both on the catenary and pan-tograph [7]. The present study investigates the impact of crosswinds on a high speed panto-graph by considering both the mean flow and the turbulence effects.
2
 
OUTLINE OF THE METHOD
The procedure to compute the deflections and thus the pantograph sway consists of the fol-lowing steps1) The generation of a turbulent crosswind velocity time history2) Wind tunnel tests of a scaled model of the Class 365 EMU to compute the mean force coef-ficients for a number of relative wind angles3) In the frequency domain, aerodynamic admittance functions for lift and side force are ob-tained on the basis of wind and force spectra4) Expressions for the aerodynamic admittance function are derived. Corresponding expres-sions of the aerodynamic weighting function are obtained in the time-domain5) By convolving the weighting function with crosswind velocity the fluctuating part of thecrosswind force on the train is found, which is added to the mean force to obtain the total un-steady force on the train.6) These forces are then used to calculate the deflections of the train body due to crosswindsfor a range of variables – wind speed, vehicle speed, track roughness, cant etc, using the dy-namic analysis software Vampire7) Suitable models of pantograph and contact wire deflections due to crosswind are derived8) The deflections from (7) are then used with the predictions of Vampire to compute totalpan sway values in crosswinds.
3
 
COMPONENTS OF THE METHOD3.1
 
Crosswind time history simulation
Let us consider the UK Class 365 EMU train fitted with a pantograph, running on an elec-trified straight track through a turbulent crosswind which acts perpendicular to the train (purecrosswind). The crosswind flow is two-dimensional, incompressible, and has a mean and afluctuating (turbulent) part which needs to be simulated. The turbulent crosswind impinges onthe train body and the pantograph/overhead wire system, creating a fluctuating side force. Inorder to account for this unsteady loading, the time history of the turbulent velocity inputmust be properly simulated. Turbulent velocity is a random process with correlated time andlength scales. On the premise that the spectral approach has been successful in modeling ran-dom stochastic processes in addition to ease of implementation, it is used here to generate amultiple-point correlated crosswind velocity field along the track. Only the longitudinal turbu-lent component)('
u
will be simulated. The turbulent velocity is based on Kaimal’s spectrum[8] of wind frequencies, and incorporates a Davenport’s spatial coherence function at a height
 z
= 3
m
above the ground. Full details of the method can be found in Ding et al. [9]. Fig. (1) isa time slice of a simulated longitudinal turbulent velocity with zero mean.
 
Abdessalem Bouferrouk, Mark Sterling and Chris J Baker
3
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80-10-50510
Simulation time (s)
   T  u  r   b  u   l  e  n   t  v  e   l  o  c   i   t  y   (  m   /  s   )
 
Figure 1: Sample time series of simulated longitudinal turbulent velocity
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
-10
10
-5
10
0
10
5
Frequency (Hz)
   P  o  w  e  r  s  p  e  c   t  r  u  m   (  m
   2
   /  s   )
 Kaimal's spectrumSimulated spectrum
 
Figure 2: Comparison of simulated wind spectrum with Kaimal’s true spectrum (log-log scale)
In Fig. (2), the power spectral density function of the simulated velocity is compared withKaimal’s true spectrum (using a log-log scale). Generally, there is a good agreement betweenthe two spectra, indicating that velocity turbulent characteristics are fairly well reproduced.One should notice, however, that while the Kaimal’s spectrum is heavily filtered, the currentdata contains high levels of noise as seen from the large fluctuations in the power spectra.From Fig. (2), the spectrum of turbulent velocity fluctuations has a slope of about -5/3 in ac-cordance with Kolmogorov’s power law of energy spectrum in the “inertial range” of turbu-lence, separating the scale at which energy is injected into large eddies from the much smallerscale at which viscous dissipation occurs.
3.2
 
Aerodynamic force time history simulation
Once the turbulent crosswind has been simulated, the next step is to calculate the resultingunsteady forces on the train, the pantograph, and the contact wire. Different force calculationmethods exist, including the traditional quasi-steady approach in which the force fluctuationsfollow wind perturbations without any lag or attenuation. This means only the fluctuationsdue to the instantaneous turbulence are captured while the unsteady memory effects of pre-ceding turbulent velocities are ignored. Despite being straightforward to apply, the quasi-steady theory is known to produce large errors. For a crosswind flow which develops over alarge surface of a moving train a method is needed to account for both train movement andflow development in the vicinity of the train surface. These issues are addressed here usingthe concept of aerodynamic admittance function. As will be shown later, however, use of ad-mittance functions is not required for the pantograph and contact wire since they react to dif-ferent turbulent length scales compared with the main body. The idea of aerodynamicadmittance was extended from the aeronautical field to wind engineering by Davenport [10].

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