A QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE TO CITATIONS FOR SOME OF THE MOSTCOMMON TYPES OF SOURCESIN-TEXT CITATIONS:
unless otherwise noted, these come at the end of the sentence or section where you include a quote, summary, or paraphrase.1.
“direct quotes need quotation marks around them” (author’s lastname, year of publication, page #). Example: (Smith, 2001, p. 35).2.
Paraphrase or summary where author’s name is not given in the sentence:
this citation will look very similar to the citation for a direct quote (author’s lastname, year of publication, page #). Example: (Smith, 2001, p.35).3.
Paraphrase or summary where author’s name is given in the sentence:
If yougive the author’s name in the sentence, you do not need to include it again in your in-text citation. (year of publication, page #). Example: (2001, p. 35). Someinstructors may ask you to include this information directly after you mention theauthor’s name. If this is the case, the formatting is exactly the same, you just putthe citation within the sentence instead of at the end of the sentence. Example:According to Smith (2001, p. 35) some people are wary of the Twinkie because of its unbelievably long shelf life.4.
Group as author:
If an entire group is recognized as the author of a particular source, use the group name just as you would use an individual’s name. (groupname, year of publication, page #). (Americans for the Appreciation of Snack-foods, 1999, p.56)5.
Unknown or unidentified author:
If you can’t find an author or a group listedfor a source, you will use the title of the source instead of a person’s or a group’sname. (“When Twinkies Go Bad,” 1999).6.
Article from an Online journal or database:
treat this just like you would a printed source. Your in-text citation should include the last name of the author,the year of publication, and a page number. Some articles will not have pagenumbers. If you can’t find a page number, include ¶ followed by a paragraphnumber. (Johnson, 2003, ¶ 13).7.
When you make an in-text citation for a website, use the last name of the author. If you cannot locate an author, you want to give the basic address for the website in parentheses. For example, if your website address iswww.twinkiesaresupernatural.com/09809809345, you do not need to include the/098… Instead, your in-text citation will look like this(www.twinkiesaresupernatural.com).Document created by Emily Russell (ITT composition tutor)Information taken from Prentice Hall Reference Guide 6
edition, ed. Muriel HarrisMaterials cited in examples are all fictitious