Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Copd

Copd

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12 |Likes:
Published by He Af
COPD guidelines
COPD guidelines

More info:

Categories:Topics
Published by: He Af on Sep 12, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/12/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, andPrevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
GOLD Executive Summary
Klaus F. Rabe
1
, Suzanne Hurd
2
, Antonio Anzueto
3
, Peter J. Barnes
4
, Sonia A. Buist
5
, Peter Calverley
6
,Yoshinosuke Fukuchi
7
, Christine Jenkins
8
, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin
9
, Chris van Weel
10
, and Jan Zielinski
11
1
Leiden University Medical Center, Pulmonology, Leiden, The Netherlands;
2
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease,Gaithersburg, Maryland;
3
University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas;
4
National Heart and Lung Institute, London,United Kingdom;
5
Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon;
6
University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom;
7
 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology, Tokyo, Japan;
8
 Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, North Sydney, Australia;
9
Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain;
10
University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; and
11
Institute of TB and Lung Diseases, Warsaw, Poland
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronicmorbidityandmortalityintheUnitedStates,andisprojectedtoranfifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a studypublished by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet,COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as wellas public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort tobringmoreattentiontoCOPD,itsmanagement,anditsprevention,acommittedgroupofscientistsencouragedtheU.S.NationalHeart,Lung, and Blood Institute and the World Health Organization toform the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease(GOLD). Among the important objectives of GOLD are to increaseawareness of COPD and to help the millions of people who suffer from this diseaseand die prematurely of it or its complications. Thefirst step in the GOLD program was to prepare a consensus report,
Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD 
, published in 2001. The present, newly revised documentfollows the same format as the original consensus report, but hasbeen updated to reflect the many publications on COPD that haveappeared. GOLD national leaders, a network of internationalexperts, have initiated investigations of the causes and prevalenceof COPD in their countries, and developed innovative approachesfor the dissemination and implementation of COPD managementguidelines.WeappreciatetheenormousamountofworktheGOLDnational leaders have done on behalf of their patients with COPD.Despite the achievements in the 5 years since the GOLD report wasoriginally published, considerable additional work is ahead of us if we are to control this major public health problem. The GOLDinitiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of govern-ments, public health officials, health care workers, and the generalpublic, but a concerted effort by all involved in health care will benecessary.Keywords:
COPD; guidelines; human; chronic disease
CONTENTS
IntroductionMethodology and Summary of New RecommendationsLevels of Evidence1. Definition, Classification of Severity, and Mechanisms of COPDDefinitionSpirometric Classification of Severity and Stages of COPDPathology, Pathogenesis, and Pathophysiology2. Burden of COPDEpidemiologyPrevalenceMorbidityMortalityEconomic and Social Burden of COPDRisk FactorsGenesInhalational ExposuresSexInfectionSocioeconomic Status3. The Four Components of COPD ManagementIntroductionComponent 1: Assess and Monitor DiseaseInitial DiagnosisOngoing Monitoring and AssessmentComponent 2: Reduce Risk FactorsSmoking Prevention and CessationOccupational ExposuresIndoor and Outdoor Air PollutionComponent 3: Manage Stable COPDIntroductionEducationPharmacologic TreatmentsNonpharmacologic TreatmentsSpecial ConsiderationsComponent 4: Manage ExacerbationsIntroductionDiagnosis and Assessment of SeverityHome ManagementHospital ManagementHospital Discharge and Follow-up4. Translating Guideline Recommendations to the Context of (Primary) CareDiagnosisRespiratory Symptoms
(
Received in original form March 20, 2007; accepted in final form May 15, 2007 
)Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Prof. Klaus F.Rabe, M.D., Ph.D., Leiden University Medical Center, Pulmonology, P.O. Box9600, NL-2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: k.f.rabe@lumc.nl.This article has an online supplement, which is accessible from this issue’s table of contents at www.atsjournals.orgThis document is available in a different format on the Global Initiative for ChronicObstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) website at www.goldcopd.org/download.asp?intId=380
Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 176. pp 532–555, 2007Originally Published in Press as DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200703-456SO on May 16, 2007Internet address: www.atsjournals.org
 
SpirometryComorbiditiesReducing Exposure to Risk FactorsImplementation of COPD Guidelines
INTRODUCTION
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a majorcause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world.Many people suffer from this disease for years and die pre-maturely of it or its complications. The goals of the GlobalInitiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) are toimprove prevention and management of COPD through a con-certed worldwide effort of people involved in all facets of healthcare and health care policy, and to encourage an expanded levelof research interest in this highly prevalent disease.One strategy to help achieve the objectives of GOLD is toprovide health care workers, health care authorities, and thegeneral public with state-of-the-art information about COPDand specific recommendations on the most appropriate man-agement and prevention strategies. The GOLD report,
Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD
, is based on the best-validated current concepts of COPD pathogenesis and the available evidence on the mostappropriate management and prevention strategies. A majorpart of the GOLD report is devoted to the clinical managementof COPD and presents a management plan with four compo-nents: (
1
) assess and monitor disease, (
 2
) reduce risk factors, (
 3
)manage stable COPD, and (
4
) manage exacerbations. A newsection at the end of the document will assist readers intranslating guideline recommendations to the context of (pri-mary) care.GOLD is a partner organization in a program launched inMarch 2006 by the World Health Organization’s Global Alli-ance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). Throughthe work of the GOLD committees, and in cooperation withGARD initiatives, progress toward better care for all patientswith COPD should be substantial in the next decade.
Methodology and Summary of New Recommendations
After the release of the 2001 GOLD report, a science commit-tee was formed and charged with keeping the GOLD docu-ments up-to-date by reviewing published research
,
evaluatingthe impact of this research on the management recommenda-tions in the GOLD documents, and posting yearly updates of these documents on the GOLD website (www.goldcopd.org).The methodology is described in each update (
 see, e.g
., the 2005update in Reference 3 and the A
PPENDIX
in the online supple-ment).In January 2005, the GOLD science committee initiatedpreparation of this revised 2006 document on the basis of themost current scientific literature. Multiple meetings were held,including several with GOLD national leaders to discuss con-cepts and new recommendations. Before its publications, sev-eral reviewers were invited to submit comments.A summary of the issues presented in this report include thefollowing:1. Recognition that COPD is characterized by chronicairflow limitation and a range of pathologic changes inthe lung, some significant extrapulmonary effects, andimportant comorbidities that may contribute to the se-verity of the disease in individual patients.2. In the definition of COPD, the phrase ‘‘preventable andtreatable’’ has been incorporated following the AmericanThoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recom-mendations to recognize the need to present a positiveoutlook for patients, to encourage the health care com-munity to take a more active role in developing programsfor COPD prevention, and to stimulate effective manage-ment programs to treat those with the disease.3. The spirometric classification of severity of COPD nowincludes four stages: stage I, mild; stage II, moderate;stage III, severe; stage IV, very severe. A fifth category,‘‘stage 0, at risk,’’ that appeared in the 2001 report is nolonger included as a stage of COPD, as there is in-complete evidence that the individuals who meet thedefinition of ‘‘at risk’’ (chronic cough and sputum pro-duction, normal spirometry) necessarily progress on tostage I. Nevertheless, the importance of the public healthmessage that chronic cough and sputum are not normal isunchanged.4. The spirometric classification of severity continues torecommend use of the fixed ratio post-bronchodilatorFEV
1
/FVC
,
0.7 to define airflow limitation. Using thefixed ratio (FEV
1
/FVC) is particularly problematic inpatients with milder disease who are elderly because thenormal process of aging affects lung volumes. Post-bronchodilator reference values in this population areurgently needed to avoid potential overdiagnosis.5. Section 2, B
URDEN OF
COPD, provides references topublished data from prevalence surveys to estimate thatabout 15 to 25% of adults aged 40 years and older mayhave airflow limitation classified as stage I mild COPD orhigher and that the prevalence of COPD (stage I, mildCOPD and higher) is appreciably higher in smokers andex-smokers than in nonsmokers, in those over 40 yearscompared with those younger than 40, and higher in menthan in women. The section also provides new data onCOPD morbidity and mortality.6. Cigarette smoke is the most commonly encountered riskfactor for COPD and elimination of this risk factor is animportant step toward prevention and control of COPD.However, other risk factors for COPD should be takeninto account where possible, including occupationaldusts and chemicals, and indoor air pollution frombiomass cooking and heating in poorly ventilated dwell-ings—the latter especially among women in developingcountries.7. The section on pathology, pathogenesis, and pathophys-iology, continues with the theme that inhaled cigarettesmoke and other noxious particles cause lung inflamma-tion, a normal response which appears to be amplified inpatients who develop COPD. The section has beenconsiderably updated and revised.8. Management of COPD continues to be presented in fourcomponents: (
1
) assess and monitor disease, (
 2
) reducerisk factors, (
 3
) manage stable COPD, and (
4
) manageexacerbations. All components have been updated on thebasis of recently published literature. Throughout it isemphasized that the overall approach to managing stableCOPD should be individualized to address symptoms andimprove quality of life.9. In C
OMPONENT
4, M
ANAGE
E
XACERBATIONS
, a COPDexacerbation is defined as ‘‘an event in the natural courseof the disease characterized by a change in the patient’sbaseline dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum that is beyondnormal day-to-day variations, is acute in onset, and maywarrant a change in regular medication in a patient withunderlying COPD.’’
GOLD Executive Summary 533
 
10. It is widely recognized that a wide spectrum of healthcare providers is required to ensure that COPD isdiagnosed accurately, and that individuals who haveCOPD are treated effectively. The identification of effective health care teams will depend on the localhealth care system, and much work remains to identifyhow best to build these health care teams. A section onCOPD implementation programs and issues for clinicalpractice has been included but it remains a field thatrequires considerable attention.
Levels of Evidence
Levels of evidence are assigned to management recommen-dations where appropriate in subsections of section 3 thatdiscuss COPD management, with the system used in previousGOLD reports (Table 1). Evidence levels are enclosedin parentheses after the relevant statement—for example,(Evidence A).
1. DEFINITION, CLASSIFICATION OF SEVERITY, ANDMECHANISMS OF COPD
Definition
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable andtreatable disease with some significant extrapulmonary effects thatmay contribute to the severity in individual patients. Its pulmonarycomponent is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fullyreversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associ-ated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxiousparticles or gases.
The chronic airflow limitation characteristic of COPD iscaused by a mixture of small airway disease (obstructivebronchiolitis) and parenchymal destruction (emphysema), therelative contributions of which vary from person to person.Airflow limitation is best measured by spirometry, because thisis the most widely available, reproducible test of lung function.Because COPD often develops in longtime smokers inmiddle age, patients often have a variety of other diseasesrelated to either smoking or aging (4). COPD itself also hassignificant extrapulmonary (systemic) effects that lead tocomorbid conditions (5). Thus, COPD should be managed withcareful attention also paid to comorbidities and their effect onthe patient’s quality of life. A careful differential diagnosis andcomprehensive assessment of severity of comorbid conditionsshould be performed in every patient with chronic airflowlimitation.
Spirometric Classification of Severity and Stages of COPD
For educational reasons, a simple spirometric classification of disease severity into four stages is recommended (Table 2).Spirometry is essential for diagnosis and provides a usefuldescription of the severity of pathologic changes in COPD.Specific spirometric cut points (e.g., post-bronchodilator FEV
1
/FVC ratio
,
0.70 or FEV
1
,
80, 50, or 30% predicted) are usedfor purposes of simplicity; these cut points have not beenclinically validated. A study in a random population samplefound that the post-bronchodilator FEV
1
/FVC exceeded 0.70 inall age groups, supporting the use of this fixed ratio (6). How-ever, because the process of aging does affect lung volumes, theuse of this fixed ratio may result in overdiagnosis of COPD inthe elderly, especially in those with mild disease.The characteristic symptoms of COPD are chronic andprogressive dyspnea, cough, and sputum production. Chroniccough and sputum production may precede the development of airflow limitation by many years. This pattern offers a uniqueopportunity to identify smokers and others at risk for COPD,and to intervene when the disease is not yet a major healthproblem. Conversely, significant airflow limitation may developwithout chronic cough and sputum production.
Stage I: mild COPD
: Characterized by mild airflow limitation(FEV
1
/FVC
,
0.70, FEV
1
>
80% predicted). Symptoms of chronic cough and sputum production may be present, butnot always. At this stage, the individual is usually unawarethat his or her lung function is abnormal.
Stage II: moderate COPD
: Characterized by worsening airflowlimitation (FEV
1
/FVC
,
0.70, 50%
<
FEV
1
,
80% pre-dicted), with shortness of breath typically developing onexertion and cough and sputum production sometimes alsopresent. This is the stage at which patients typically seekmedical attention because of chronic respiratory symptomsor an exacerbation of their disease.
Stage III: severe COPD
: Characterized by further worsening of airflow limitation (FEV
1
/FVC
,
0.70, 30%
<
FEV
1
,
50%predicted), greater shortness of breath, reduced exercisecapacity, fatigue, and repeated exacerbations that almostalways have an impact on patients’ quality of life.
TABLE 1. DESCRIPTION OF LEVELS OF EVIDENCE
EvidenceCategory Sources of Evidence Denition A RCTs. Rich body of data. Evidence is from endpoints of well-designed RCTs that provide a consistent pattern of findingsin the population for which the recommendation is made. Category A requires substantial numbersof studies involving substantial numbers of participants.B RCTs. Limited body of data. Evidence is from endpoints of intervention studies that include only a limited number of patients,
post hoc 
or subgroup analysis of RCTs, or meta-analysis of RCTs. In general, category B pertainswhen few randomized trials exist, they are small in size, they were undertaken in a populationthat differs from the target population of the recommendation, or the results are somewhatinconsistent.C Nonrandomized trials.Observational studies.Evidence is from outcomes of uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials or from observational studies.D Panel consensus judgment. This category is used only in cases where the provision of some guidance was deemed valuable butthe clinical literature addressing the subject was insufficient to justify placement in one of theother categories. The panel consensus is based on clinical experience or knowledge that does notmeet the above-listed criteria.
Definition of abbreviation
: RCT
5
randomized controlled trial.
534 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE VOL 176 2007

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->