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MLA Sample Research Paper

MLA Sample Research Paper

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Published by BlueEELI
Level 5, Sample Research Paper on Mountain Lions as endangered species
Level 5, Sample Research Paper on Mountain Lions as endangered species

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Published by: BlueEELI on Jun 25, 2009
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Garcia 1John GarciaProfessor HackerEnglish 1017 April 1999The Mountain Lion:Once Endangered, Now a DangerOn April 23, 1994, as Barbara Schoener was joggingin the Sierra foothills of California, she was pouncedon from behind by a mountain lion. After an apparentstruggle with her attacker, Schoener was killed bybites to her neck and head (Rychnovsky 39). In 1996,because of Schoener’s death and other highly publicizedattacks, California politicians presented voters withProposition 197, which contained provisions repealingmuch of a 1990 law enacted to protect the lions. The1990 law outlawed sport hunting of mountain lions andeven prevented the Department of Fish and Game fromthinning the lion population.Proposition 197 was rejected by a large margin,probably because the debate turned into a struggle be-tween hunting and antihunting factions. When Californiapoliticians revisit the mountain lion question, theyshould frame the issue in a new way. A future proposi-tion should retain the ban on sport hunting but allowthe Department of Fish and Game to control the popula-tion. Wildlife management would reduce the number oflion attacks on humans and in the long run would alsoprotect the lions.The once-endangered mountain lionTo early Native Americans, mountain lions--alsoknown as cougars, pumas, and panthers--were objects ofreverence. The European colonists, however, did notshare the Native American view. They conducted what Ted
Double-spacingused throughout.Title is centered.Summary:cita-tion with au-thor’s name andpage number inparentheses.Thesis assertswriter’s mainpoint.Headings helpreaders followthe organization.
Garcia 2Williams calls an “all-out war on the species” (29).The lions were eliminated from the eastern UnitedStates except for a small population that remains inthe Florida Everglades.The lions lingered on in the West, but in smallerand smaller numbers. At least 66,665 lions were killedbetween 1907 and 1978 in Canada and the United States(Hansen 58). As late as 1969, the country’s leading au-thority on the big cat, Maurice Hornocker, estimatedthe United States population as fewer than 6,500 andprobably dropping (Williams 30).Resurgence of the mountain lionIn western states today, the mountain lion is nolonger in danger of extinction. In fact, over the pastthirty years, the population has rebounded dramati-cally. In California, fish and game officials estimatethat since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400to at least 6,000 (“Lion” A21).Similar increases are occurring outside of Cali-fornia. For instance, for nearly fifty years mountainlions had virtually disappeared from Yellowstone Na-tional Park, but today lion sightings are increasinglycommon. In 1992, Hornocker estimated that at leasteighteen adults were living in the park (59). In theUnited States as a whole, some biologists estimate thatthere are as many as 50,000 mountain lions, a dramaticincrease over the 1969 estimate of 6,500 (Williams 30).For the millions of Americans interested in the preser-vation of animal species, this is good news, but unfor-tunately the increase has led to a number of violentencounters between human and lion.
Statistics docu-mented withcitations.Short title givenin parenthesesbecause thework has noauthor.A clear transi-tion preparesreaders for thenext section.Quotation: au-thor named insignal phrase;page number inparentheses.Hornocker intro-duced as anexpert.
Garcia 3Increasing attacks on humansThere is no doubt that more and more humans arebeing attacked. A glance at figure 1, a graph of statis-tics compiled by mountain lion researcher Paul Beier,confirms just how dramatically the attacks have in-creased since the beginning of the century.Ray Rychnovsky reports that thirteen people havebeen killed and another fifty-seven have been mauled bylions since 1890. “What’s most startling,” writes Rych-novsky, “is that nearly three-quarters of the attacks[. . .] have taken place in the last twenty-five years”(41).Particularly frightening are the attacks on chil-dren. Kevin Hansen points out that children have been“more vulnerable than adults, making up 64 percent ofthe victims” (69). This is not surprising, since chil-
1900–091910–191920–291930–391940–491950–591960–691970–791980–891990–94 1990–99
U.S. and Canada (except California)California only U.S. and Canada deathsCalifornia deaths
Fig. 1. Cougar attacks--a history, by Paul Beier,Northern Arizona University; rpt. in Rychnovsky (42).
The writer ex-plains what thegraph shows.Ellipsis dots inbrackets indicatewords omittedfrom the originalsource.Quotation intro-duced with asignal phrase.The graph dis-plays evidenceof increasedattacks.

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