Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Fuel Field Manual (13)

Fuel Field Manual (13)

Ratings: (0)|Views: 58|Likes:
Published by FREDIELABRADOR

More info:

Published by: FREDIELABRADOR on Sep 13, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/13/2013

pdf

text

original

 
CHAPTER
4
Common
Sources
of
Fuel
Performance
Problems
A.
ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES
Elements
of the
environment continually impact
fuel
performance.
The
effect
of
water,
cold
temperatures,
heat, air, light,
and
external contamination
can
initiate
a
variety of
problems.
The
first
place
to
begin looking
for
the
cause
of a
fuel
handling
or
performance problem would be these environmental
sources.
!.Water
Water
is one of the most abundant, unique, and utilized compounds on
earth.
It
functions
as a
powerful
solvent, provides heating
and
cooling,
is a
common reagent
in
most chemical
reactions,
and
comprises most
of our
body weight.Itis unique because of its
powerful
hydrogen bonding character and its distinctpolarity. However,
in
fuel
systems, these characteristics
of
water make
it a
source
of
a
variety
of
problems. Corrosion
of
metal
fuel
system components, emulsification
with
fuel
performance additives,
and ice
formation
in
fuel
lines
are
some
of the
problems directly related
to the
presence
of
water
in
fuel.
a. Solvent
Properties
of Water
The
ability
of
water
to
function
as a
solvent
for
many compounds also makes
it
useful
in the
fuel
refining
and
processing industry.
It is
utilized
to
wash
and
remove salts
from
crude
oil
prior
to
distillation,remove
H
2
Sand
mercaptans
from
processed
fuel
(as
caustic
water),and
function
in the
removal
of
trace amounts
ofacid
from
acid-catalyzed
fuel
processing reactions.
Water
can
dissolve both organic
and
inorganic compounds.
The
presence
of
these compoundscanincreasetheabilityofwatertoconduct electrical charge.Because
of
this
fact,
it is
possible
to
estimate
the
total dissolved solids (TDS)
inwater
by measuring a change in its ability to conduct
electrical
charge. Therelationship between electrical conductivity and TDS in water is shown in
TABLE
4-1.
 
Organic compounds present
in
water
can be
natural compounds
or
contaminants.Microorganisms
and
plant decomposition products
can
occur naturally
in
water.
Alcohols, organophosphates, glycols,
andorganohalidesareexamplesoforganic
contaminants
frequently found
in
water. Analytical methods including
the
biological
oxygen
demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon(TOC), total organic halide (TOX), and oil and grease are utilized to measure the
quality
andconcentrationoforganic compoundsinwater. These methodsare
summarizedin
TABLE 4-2.
TABLE
4-2.
Methods
Utilized
to Measure the
Concentration
of OrganicCompounds
in Water
Method
Biological oxygen
demand
(BOD)Chemical OxygenDemand (COD)Total organic carbon
(TOC)
Summary
A
five-day
incubation
is
utilized
to
determine
theamountof
oxygen consumed when bacteria digestorganic matterinwater. HighBOD mayindicate
an
oxygen shortage
in
water
for
fish
and
otheraquatic
life.
Utilizes potassium dichromate
to
oxidize
and
measure
the
amount
of
oxygen consumed
by
biodegradable
and
nonbiodegradable organicmaterial and oxidizable inorganic compounds.
BOD
=
(0.7
-0.
8)
X COD
The
total amount
of
organic carbon
is
measured
in
water
by
complete oxidation
to CO
2
and
H
2
O.Oxidation methods utilized for measurement
include
combustion-IR
(infrared)
and
persulfate-
UV
(ultraviolet).
Conductivity,
pS
125
50
100
500
1,000TDS,
mg/L0.5
13.4
27.4
56.3
303.0630.0
TABLE
4-1.
Effect
of
Total
Dissolved Solids
on the
Electrical
Conductivity
of
Water
 
b.Water
in
Fuel
Systems
Described below
are
some
of the
more common problems caused
by the
presence
of
water
in
fuel
systems:
FERROUS METAL CORROSION
Most
fuel
system storage tanks, transfer lines,
and
underground pipelines
are
composed of
1018/1020
carbon
steel.
These system components are all susceptible
to
internal corrosion whenever
fuel
containing water
is
introduced. Other factors
which
can
enhance
fuel
storage
and
transportation system corrosion include:
-
Acid carryover
from
fuel
processing
-
Products
of
microbial growth
- Sea
water/salt water contamination
Whenever
deposits
from
fuel
systems
are
analyzed
and are
found
to
contain highlevels
of
iron, corrosion
is
probably occurring somewhere within
the
fuel
system.
When
water pH is
<6,
iron corrosion and the formation of corrosion products
such
as
colloidal ferric hydroxide
can
result. Colloidal ferric hydroxide, however,
is
difficult
to
detect
and
difficult
to
remove through filtration. Fuel containingthese particles appears bright and clear. Only about 1 micron in diameter,
colloidal
ferric
hydroxide compounds
can
pass through
fuel
filters
and
deposit
onto
fuel
system
components. Further system corrosion
can
follow.
ACID CARRYOVER/LOW
WATER
PH
During the
processing
of
fuels,
acids
can be
used
as
extracting/neutralizing agents
as
well as reactioncatalysts.For example,
sulfuric
acid can be used to remove
olefins
from fuel.
Sulfuric/hydrofluoric
acids
are
used
as
reaction catalysts
in the
production
of
high-octane gasoline alkylate fractions.
Refiners
typically wash acid-processed
fuel
with water
or
caustic
to
remove
the
Total organic halide
(TOX)
Oil and greaseOrganohalides are separated
from
water byadsorption onto
a
charcoal packed column.
The
charcoal
is
pyrolyzed releasingHX.
The HX
gases
are
then analyzed
by
coulometry.Mineral
oil,
lipids, dyes,
detergents,
andelemental
sulfur
are
extracted into hexane
or
onto
a
solid-phase silica-hydrocarbon medium and
separated.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->