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RMO 2011

RMO 2011

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Published by Nilesh Gupta
RMO 2011 PAER WITH SOLUTION
RMO 2011 PAER WITH SOLUTION

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Published by: Nilesh Gupta on Sep 13, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/27/2013

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Problems and Solutions: CRMO-2011
1. Let 
ABC 
be a triangle. Let 
D
,
,
be points respectively on the segments
BC 
,
CA
,
AB
such that 
AD
,
BE 
,
C
concur at the point 
. Suppose
BD/DC 
=
BF/FA
and
ADB
=
AF
. Prove that 
ABE 
=
CAD
.
Solution:
Since
BD/DC 
=
BF/FA
,the lines
DF 
and
CA
are parallel. Wealso have
BD
=
ADB
=
AF
=180
BF
, so that 
BDKF 
is a cyclicquadrilateral. Hence
FBK 
=
FDK 
.Finally, we get 
ABE 
=
FBK 
=
FDK 
=
FDA
=
DAC,
since
FD
AC 
.2. Let 
(
a
1
,a
2
,a
3
,...,a
2011
)
be a permutation (that is a rearrangement) of the num- bers
1
,
2
,
3
,...,
2011
. Show that there exist two numbers
j,k
such that 
1
j <k
2011
and
a
 j
 j
=
a
k
k
.
Solution:
Observe that 
2011
 j
=1
a
 j
 j
= 0
, since
(
a
1
,a
2
,a
3
,...,a
2011
)
is a permu-tation of 
1
,
2
,
3
,...,
2011
. Hence
2011
 j
=1
a
 j
 j
is even. Suppose
a
 j
 j
=
a
k
k
for all
j
=
k
. This means the collection
|
a
 j
j
|
: 1
j
2011
is the sameas the collection
{
0
,
1
,
2
,...,
2010
}
as the maximum difference is 2011-1=2010.Hence
2011
 j
=1
a
 j
 j
= 1 + 2 + 3 +
···
+ 2010 =2010
×
20112= 2011
×
1005
,
 which is odd. This shows that 
|
a
 j
 j
|
=
|
a
k
k
|
for some
j
=
k
.3. Anaturalnumber 
n
ischosen strictly between twoconsecutive perfect squares. The smaller of these two squares is obtained by subtracting
k
from
n
and thelarger one is obtained by adding
l
to
n
. Prove that 
n
kl
is a perfect square.
Solution:
Let 
u
be a natural number such that 
u
2
< n <
(
u
+ 1)
2
. Then
n
k
=
u
2
and
n
+
l
= (
u
+ 1)
2
. Thus
n
kl
=
n
n
u
2

(
u
+ 1)
2
n
=
n
n
(
u
+ 1)
2
+
n
2
+
u
2
(
u
+ 1)
2
nu
2
=
n
2
+
n
1
(
u
+ 1)
2
u
2
+
u
2
(
u
+ 1)
2
=
n
2
+
n
1
2
u
2
2
u
1
+
u
2
(
u
+ 1)
2
=
n
2
2
nu
(
u
+ 1) +
u
(
u
+ 1)
2
=
n
u
(
u
+ 1)
2
.
 
4. Consider a 20-sided convex polygon
, with vertices
A
1
,A
2
,...,A
20
in that order. Find the number of ways in which three sides of 
can be chosen sothat every pair among them has at least two sides of 
between them. (For example
(
A
1
A
2
,A
4
A
5
,A
11
A
12
)
is an admissible triple while
(
A
1
A
2
,A
4
A
5
,A
19
A
20
)
is not.)
AAAA
18
A
19
A
20
A
1 234
K
Solution:
First let us count allthe admissible triples having
A
1
A
2
as one of the sides. Having cho-sen
A
1
A
2
, we cannot choose
A
2
A
3
,
A
3
A
4
,
A
20
A
1
nor 
A
19
A
20
. Thus wehave to choose two sides sepa-rated by 2 sides among 15 sides
A
4
A
5
,
A
5
A
6
,
...
,
A
18
A
19
. If 
A
4
A
5
isone of them, the choice for the re-maining side is only from 12 sides
A
7
A
8
,
A
8
A
9
,
...
,
A
18
A
19
. If we choose
A
5
A
6
after 
A
1
A
2
, the choice for the thirdside is now only from
A
8
A
9
,
A
9
A
10
,
...
,
A
18
A
19
(11 sides). Thus the number of choices progressively decreases and finally for the side
A
15
A
16
there is only one choice, namely,
A
18
A
19
. Hence the number of triples with
A
1
A
2
as one of the sides is
12 + 11 + 10 +
···
+ 1 =12
×
132= 78
.
Hence the number of triples then would be
(78
×
20)
/
3 = 520
.
Remark:
For an
n
-sided polygon, thenumber of such triples is
n
(
n
7)(
n
8)6
,for 
n
9
. We may check that for 
n
= 20
, this gives
(20
×
13
×
12)
/
6 = 520
.5. Let 
ABC 
be a triangle and let 
BB
1
,
C
1
be respectively the bisectors of 
B
,
with
B
1
on
AC 
and
1
on
AB
. Le
,
be the feet of perpendicularsdrawn from
A
onto
BB
1
,
C
1
respectively. Suppose
D
is the point at whichthe incircle of 
ABC 
touches
AB
. Prove that 
AD
=
EF 
.
Solution:
Observe that 
ADI 
=
AF
=
AEI 
= 90
. Hence
A,F,D,I,E 
all lie on the circle with
AI 
as diameter. We alsoknow 
BI
= 90
+
A
2=
FIE.
 This gives
FAE 
= 180
90
+
A
2
= 90
A
2
.
 We also have
AID
= 90
A
2
. Thus
FAE 
=
AID
. This shows the chords
F
and
AD
subtend equal angles at the circumference of the same circle.Hence they have equal lengths, i.e.,
F
=
AD
.

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