4. Consider a 20-sided convex polygon
K
, with vertices
A
1
,A
2
,...,A
20
in that order. Find the number of ways in which three sides of
K
can be chosen sothat every pair among them has at least two sides of
K
between them. (For example
(
A
1
A
2
,A
4
A
5
,A
11
A
12
)
is an admissible triple while
(
A
1
A
2
,A
4
A
5
,A
19
A
20
)
is not.)
AAAA
18
A
19
A
20
A
1 234
K
Solution:
First let us count allthe admissible triples having
A
1
A
2
as one of the sides. Having cho-sen
A
1
A
2
, we cannot choose
A
2
A
3
,
A
3
A
4
,
A
20
A
1
nor
A
19
A
20
. Thus wehave to choose two sides sepa-rated by 2 sides among 15 sides
A
4
A
5
,
A
5
A
6
,
...
,
A
18
A
19
. If
A
4
A
5
isone of them, the choice for the re-maining side is only from 12 sides
A
7
A
8
,
A
8
A
9
,
...
,
A
18
A
19
. If we choose
A
5
A
6
after
A
1
A
2
, the choice for the thirdside is now only from
A
8
A
9
,
A
9
A
10
,
...
,
A
18
A
19
(11 sides). Thus the number of choices progressively decreases and ﬁnally for the side
A
15
A
16
there is only one choice, namely,
A
18
A
19
. Hence the number of triples with
A
1
A
2
as one of the sides is
12 + 11 + 10 +
···
+ 1 =12
×
132= 78
.
Hence the number of triples then would be
(78
×
20)
/
3 = 520
.
Remark:
For an
n
-sided polygon, thenumber of such triples is
n
(
n
−
7)(
n
−
8)6
,for
n
≥
9
. We may check that for
n
= 20
, this gives
(20
×
13
×
12)
/
6 = 520
.5. Let
ABC
be a triangle and let
BB
1
,
CC
1
be respectively the bisectors of
∠
B
,
∠
C
with
B
1
on
AC
and
C
1
on
AB
. Let
E
,
F
be the feet of perpendicularsdrawn from
A
onto
BB
1
,
CC
1
respectively. Suppose
D
is the point at whichthe incircle of
ABC
touches
AB
. Prove that
AD
=
EF
.
Solution:
Observe that
∠
ADI
=
∠
AFI
=
∠
AEI
= 90
◦
. Hence
A,F,D,I,E
all lie on the circle with
AI
as diameter. We alsoknow
∠
BIC
= 90
◦
+
∠
A
2=
∠
FIE.
This gives
∠
FAE
= 180
◦
−
90
◦
+
∠
A
2
= 90
◦
−
∠
A
2
.
We also have
∠
AID
= 90
◦
−
∠
A
2
. Thus
∠
FAE
=
∠
AID
. This shows the chords
FE
and
AD
subtend equal angles at the circumference of the same circle.Hence they have equal lengths, i.e.,
FE
=
AD
.