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Criminology

Criminology

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Published by raypure
Raymond Pure Criminology Professor GH Curry 1. Legally, crimes usually are defined as acts or omissions forbidden by law that can be punished by imprisonment and/or fine. Why would someone engage in deviant and criminal behavior? Rational choice is the view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the information on their personal needs and the situational factors involved in the difficulty and risk of committing a crime. According to this view
Raymond Pure Criminology Professor GH Curry 1. Legally, crimes usually are defined as acts or omissions forbidden by law that can be punished by imprisonment and/or fine. Why would someone engage in deviant and criminal behavior? Rational choice is the view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the information on their personal needs and the situational factors involved in the difficulty and risk of committing a crime. According to this view

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Published by: raypure on Jun 25, 2009
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Raymond PureCriminologyProfessor GH Curry1.Legally, crimes usually are defined as acts or omissions forbidden by law that can be punished by imprisonment and/or fine. Why would someone engage in deviant and criminal behavior?Rational choice is the view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in whichthe potential offender weighs the information on their personal needs and the situational factorsinvolved in the difficulty and risk of committing a crime. According to this view as a cause, people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviors. Some criminal behavior isthe product of careful thought and planning. The human being is a rational actor and rationalityinvolved an end/means calculation. The element of calculation in rational choice is based on thereward or punishment (pleasure versus pain). People choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or personal need and situational factors, such as how well a target is protected, howaffluent the neighborhood is, how efficient the local police happen to be. Before choosing tocommit a crime the reasoning criminal evaluates the risk of apprehension, the seriousness of the punishment, the value of the criminal enterprise, and his or her immediate need for criminal gain.According to the classical theory, crime can be controlled only by fear of criminal sanctions.We use the criminal justice system and crime prevention programs to help rid of crimes in our society. It purposes is to prevent potential offenders from doing fresh harm to his fellow manand to deter others from doing the same. Also the threat of punishment is one of the mainelements of criminal justice system as a deterrence mechanism. However, since people arerational and may ignores these deterrence methods. We have criminal law that is designed todeter criminals and fairly punish those that have been caught in criminal acts.
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Deterrence theory is effective if certainty of arrest, conviction, and sanctioning increases,crime rates should decline. However, rational offenders would realize that the certainty of harsh punishment outweighs any benefit they perceive from criminal acts. They have a view that ledthem to believe that there is a small chance for an arrest, the police are reluctant to make anarrest, and if apprehended they may have a good chance of receiving a lenient sentence. As asociety, deterrence theory may be more effective if punishment is proportional to the crime andthe public must have a clear and certain knowledge of the punishment. Punishment should beswift, so that the public easily associates the punishment with the crime and it must be certain.For example
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Situational crime prevention is a method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in narrow setting. This tactics fall into one of four categories.1.Increase the effort needed to commit crime2.Increase the risks of committing crime3.Reduce the rewards for committing crime4.Induce guilt or shame for committing crimeSince criminal activity is offense specific crime because criminal react selectively to t hecharacteristics of particular crimes. Crime prevention policies can be more effective if it coulddeter the potential offender to desist from criminal activity, delay their actions or avoid a particular target. Criminal activity can be avoided if potential targets are carefully guarded, themean to commit crime is controlled, and potential offenders are carefully monitored. The firstcategory, increasing the effort needed to commit crime use the target-hardening methods such aslocking the steering wheel with a club and controlling facilitators with an owner’s photo on hisor her credit card. These methods help reduce theft. Second, increasing the risks of committing
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crime by formal surveillance, which include a security guard to prevent or discourage shoplifters.Another important tactic called defensible space which is the principle that crime can be prevented or displaced by modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity potential offenders have to commit crime. An example, a floodlight can maximize thesurveillance of a residence to make it easier for the resident protection. Third, reducing therewards for committing crime by using some target reduction strategies. They are known astarget removal which includes the removing car radio at night and the marking of personal property make the stolen property difficult to sell. The marking could help recover property thathas been stolen. Finally, inducing guilt or shame for committing crime by setting strict rules to embarrass offenders. For example, publishing a “john lists” in the localnewspaper of lawbreaker for soliciting prostitute. Another technique called strengthening moralcondemnation. A camera located at the intersection to prevent motorists from disobeying thetraffic law of running the red light. The use of the camera has a deterrence effect because is couldmake motorists feel guilty about committing a crime.
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How has the media profoundly affected the way we view crime and punishment in our society?Movie, newspaper and the Internet are my three choices that we have access to that affect our society. The movie or the entertainment industry can influenced the potential offenderscriminality by dramatize the deviant character as role model. This influence can be a behavior modeling for them because of their perception of risks of a drug dealer being punished is notgreater that having a conventional employment. Movie can be a positive affect by portrayed acharacter of a successful legitimate businessperson that may help modeling a law-abiding citizenthan a drug dealer or a bank robber. Newspapers have a great deterrence effect on criminality bythe media reports of police activity such operation sunrise. Operation sunrise is a crackdown thatdesigned to increase the police resources on eradicate drug or displace criminal activity in the
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