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Thermal Engineering

Thermal Engineering

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Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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09/13/2013

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THERMAL ENGINEERINGUNIT IGAS POWER CYCLES
Otto, Diesel, Dual, Brayton cycles, Calculation of mean effective pressure and air standard efficiency, Actual and theoretical PV diagram of four stroke engines, Actual andtheoretical PV diagram of two stroke engines
CONCEPT OF AIR STANDARD CYCLES
An internal combustion (I.C.) engine works on open cycle but it is desirable todevice closed cycle that would approximate the actual open cycle. In an actual engine,the working fluid changes from air and fuel to products of combustion during the cycle.However nitrogen being the main constituent of air which does not undergo any chemicalreaction in the combustion chamber ,therefore,the working fluid closely resembles with air at all times.The closed cycles with air as working substance which closely resembleswith actual open cycles is called an air standard cycle.In practice,it is impossible to repeat the real cycles prescribed by the theoretical cycles for the following reasons:(a) Internal and external irreversibility like fluid and mechanical friction,combustion etc. (b) Unintended heat losses.(c) Different properties of working medium.(d) Variation in specific heat of gases with temperature.However, the air standard cycles are useful and become an important tool to provide a simple method for achieving a quantitative comparison of cycle performance.
ASSUMPTIONS OF AIR STANDARD CYCLE
Following are the assumptions made in the analysis of air standard cycles:1.The working medium in the cylinder is ai.2.The air behaves like an ideal gas i.e.it obeys the gas laws and its specific heat isconstant at all temperatures.Cp = 1.005 kJ /kg K ,Cv = 0.718 kJ /kg K ,γ = 1.4 3.The charging and discharging operations are omitted.therefore,.a constant mass of the medium is carried through the entire cycle.4.All the processes are internally reversible.There are no unintended heat lossesand friction is neglected.5.The heat energy added to the working medium is transferred from a heatreservoir. There is also a provision for transfer of heat from the working mediumto a heat reservoir sink so that the cycle is completed
TERMS USED1.CLEARANCE VOLUME V
C
The volume contained in the cylinder above the piston from its top dead centre position is called clearance volume

2.SWEPT VOLUME V
S
The volume swept by the piston corresponding to its stroke length is called strokevolume or swept volume
3. AIR STANDARD EFFICIENCY
It is the ratio of ideal work done to the heat suppliedAir standard efficiency =
Supplied  Heat  DoneWork  Ideal
4. THERMAL EFFICIENCY
The thermal efficiency of the engine is defined as the ratio of actual work done toheat suppliedThermal efficiency =
Supplied  Heat  DoneWork  Actual
OTTO CYCLE

Spark ignition engines operate on theoretical Otto cycle.The cycle is represented on(P-V) and (T-S) diagrams.Otto cycle consists of two constant volume and two reversible adiabatic processes asshown.(a)
Process (1-2) :
Reversible adiabatic compression or isentropiccompression during which air is compressed from state-l to state-2.Thelaw of process is PV
γ
= C.(b)
Process (2-3):
Heat is added to air from a heat reservoir at constantvolume and state changes from state-2 to state-3.Heat supplied, Q
2-3
= m Cv (T
3
- T
2
).(c)
Process (3-4):
The air expands from state-3 to state-4 reversibleadiabatically according to law PV
γ
= C.(d)
Process (4-1):
During this process heatis rejected at constant volume andthe system returns to its original state. Therefore,a cycle is completed. Heat rejected,Q
4-1
= m Cv (T
4
-T
I
)Efficiency =
Supplied  Heat   jected  Heat Supplied  Heat  ed  HeatSuppliWorkdone
Re
=
Efficiency =
2314
1
( )
1
11
=
γ
η
Mean effective pressurePm =
( )( )
( )
( )
{ }
1111
11
p
P
γ
γ