THERMAL ENGINEERINGUNIT IGAS POWER CYCLES
Otto, Diesel, Dual, Brayton cycles, Calculation of mean effective pressure and air standard efficiency, Actual and theoretical PV diagram of four stroke engines, Actual andtheoretical PV diagram of two stroke engines
CONCEPT OF AIR STANDARD CYCLES
An internal combustion (I.C.) engine works on open cycle but it is desirable todevice closed cycle that would approximate the actual open cycle. In an actual engine,the
working fluid changes from air and fuel to products of combustion during the cycle.However nitrogen being the main constituent of air which does not undergo any chemicalreaction in the combustion chamber ,therefore,the working fluid closely resembles with
air at all times.The closed cycles with air as working substance which closely resembleswith actual open cycles is called an air standard cycle.In practice,it is impossible to
repeat the real cycles prescribed by the theoretical cycles for the following reasons:(a) Internal and external irreversibility like fluid and mechanical friction,combustion etc.
(b) Unintended heat losses.(c) Different properties of working medium.(d) Variation in specific heat of gases with temperature.However, the air standard cycles are useful and become an important tool to provide a simple method for achieving a quantitative comparison of cycle performance.
ASSUMPTIONS OF AIR STANDARD CYCLE
Following are the assumptions made in the analysis of air standard cycles:1.The working medium in the cylinder is air .2.The air behaves like an ideal gas i.e.it obeys the gas laws and its specific heat isconstant at all temperatures.Cp = 1.005 kJ /kg K ,Cv = 0.718 kJ /kg K ,γ = 1.4
3.The charging and discharging operations are omitted.therefore,.a constant mass
of the medium is carried through the entire cycle.4.All the processes are internally reversible.There are no unintended heat lossesand friction is neglected.5.The heat energy added to the working medium is transferred from a heatreservoir. There is also a provision for transfer of heat from the working mediumto a heat reservoir sink so that the cycle is completed
TERMS USED1.CLEARANCE VOLUME V
The volume contained in the cylinder above the piston from its top dead centre position is called clearance volume