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CUPRIC ACID RECOVERY SYSTEM.

CUPRIC ACID RECOVERY SYSTEM.

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Published by AFLAC ............
CUPRIC ACID RECOVERY SYSTEM
CUPRIC ACID RECOVERY SYSTEM

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: AFLAC ............ on Jun 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/10/2012

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CUPRIC REGENERATION & COPPER RECOVERY SYSTEM
ACID ETCHING USING CUPRIC CHLORIDE
•Acid cupric chloride is used widely in the PCB industry as an effective etching solution for removingunwanted copper from copper printed circuit boards.•The etching reaction can be expressedionicallyas: -Cu
O
+ Cu
2+
=> Cu
+
+ Cu
+
•Etching one atom of copper (Cu
O
) with one cupric ion (Cu
2+)
produces two cuprous ions (Cu
+)
. Thesecuprous ions are inactive in etching terms and, as their concentration in the solution increases, the etchrate falls.•To maintain the desired etch rate it is therefore necessary to either regenerate the etchant or replacespentetchant with fresh. Regeneration is the action of oxidising thecuprous ions to convert them back tocupric.•Two methods of regeneration of theetchant are currently employed, namely chemical and electrolytic.
 
CUPRIC REGENERATION & COPPER RECOVERY SYSTEM
CHEMICAL REGENERATION
•The technique involves the use of chemical oxidation using chlorine gas or hydrogen peroxide to convertthe cuprous ions to active cupric ions. Surplus cupric chloride is produced, which increases the level ofdissolved copper in the etching until it reaches a level where etching is inhibited. Therefore, excesssolution must be removed and acid and water introduced to maintain the correct copper concentration.This can be done on a feed and bleed basis, with excess solutionstored ready for disposal.•The oxidation reaction can be expressed as:-Two Cuprous ions produced during etching + Hydrogen peroxide =>two Cupric IonsCu
+
+ Cu
+
+ H
2
O
2
=> Cu
2+
+ Cu
2+
•One Cupric Ion in the solution is required to maintain copper concentration for etching, the other isremoved by addingHCland water to maintain the correct copper concentration.•The result is a large volume of excessetchant which has to be disposed of.
 
CUPRIC REGENERATION & COPPER RECOVERY SYSTEM
ELECTROLYTIC REGENERATION
•Electrolysis is the action of producing chemical changes by passing an electric current through anelectrolyte.•Reactions taking place at the anode, or +veelectrode, are oxidations, (removal of electrons) and thoseoccurring at the cathode, or –veelectrode, are reductions, (addition of electrons).•Electrolytic regeneration of cupric chloride is achieved by taking advantage of these two simultaneousreactions.•The cupric chloride in this case is the electrolyte.•Cuprous ions are converted to cupric ions at the anode by oxidation, whilst at the cathode, cupric ionsare converted to metallic copper by reduction. It is possible tocontinuously regenerateetchant whileremoving excess dissolved copper, in metallic form.•Copper represents the only significant waste product from the process and uses no chemical additives toachieve the conversion. The only other losses in the system aredue to drag out or evaporation.•The process is achieved by the use of a divided cell containing an anode in one compartment and acathode in the other, separated by a cationic membrane. An electrical current is passed through themembrane. (see Diagram 1)•The oxidation reaction at the Anode can be expressed as:-Cu
+
+ Cu
+
-two electrons => Cu
2+
+ Cu
2+
Similar to that of chemical oxidation. Two Cupric Ions arenow present.•The Electrolytic process has the second step, where the excess Cupric Ion is removed by a reductionreaction at the Cathode. This can be expressed as:-Cu
2+
+ two electrons =>Cu
O
•Copper metal is plated onto the Cathode within the cell

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