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The Therigatha: A Revaluation

The Therigatha: A Revaluation

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A study of the inspired Verse of Buddhist Nuns, by Vijitha Rajapaksa, Wheel Publication 436
A study of the inspired Verse of Buddhist Nuns, by Vijitha Rajapaksa, Wheel Publication 436

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Published by: Buddhist Publication Society on Sep 14, 2013
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The Therīgāthā
A Revaluation
 by
Vijitha Rajapakse
Buddhist Publication SocietyKandy • Sri Lanka
The Wheel Publication no. 436
Published in 2000BPS Online Edition © (2008)Digital Transcription Source: BPS Transcription ProjectFor free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted andredistributed in any medium. However, any such republication and redistribution is to bemade available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis, and translations and otherderivative works are to be clearly marked as such.
 
 2
 Acknowledgement 
The study presented here was originally published as a two-part contribution to the
BuddhistStudies Review
(vol. 12, nos. 1 & 2, 1995), the biannual journal of the Institut de rechercheBouddhique Linh Son (France) and the Pali Buddhist Union (Britain), under the title,“Therīgāthā: On Feminism, Aestheticism and Religiosity in an Early Buddhist VerseAnthology.” Reproduced with the kind permission of the editor of the
Buddhist StudiesReview
, Russell Webb. The notes in this version have been slightly modified in a few places by its author.
 About the Author 
Vijitha Rajapakse was born in Colombo and received his undergraduate education at theUniversity of Ceylon, Peradeniya, where he read Honours in Philosophy. His graduatestudies, focused on philosophy of religion, were pursued in North American universities.He has been awarded M.A. (Western Ontario) and M.A., Ph. D. (McGill). He presentlyresides in the United States.
 
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The Therīgāthā;
 A Revaluation
I
The ancient Buddhist verse anthology known as the Therīgātha (Thī) attracted the attentionof some of the earliest Western Pāli scholars
1
and actually became the focus of manyadmiring comments from a very notable woman among them, Caroline Rhys Davids (whoalso rendered the anthology into metrical English).
2
Inquirers into the status of womenwithin the Theravāda tradition in particular have time and again drawn this remarkabletext
3
into their various disquisitions.
4
Yet its content (which has a complex significance and,especially when viewed from present-day perspectives, encompasses many strands of meaning), does not seem to have been very closely scrutinized so far. Indeed, though Thīcan be said to present an unusually attractive context for multidisciplinary investigation, it isdoubtful whether this has been seriously recognized by modern researchers in Buddhiststudies. The discussion in this article endeavours to make some amends for this situation byinitiating a brief (though nevertheless somewhat broad-based) reflective analysis of theanthology which might serve as a catalyst towards a more thorough-going revaluation of Thī and its Commentary. What follows will first highlight the feminist dimension in aselection of the
 gāthās
(whose women authors not unnaturally were often acutely consciousof their femininity,
itthibhāvo
); next, draw attention to the character and scope of thephilosophic viewpoints and aesthetic and poetic perceptions that are woven into some of them; and finally, dwell on the religiosity that suffuses and indeed gives unity to theanthology, underscoring above all the Buddhist
5
inspiration and roots of this religiosity. Thediscussion in the sequel is mainly sustained by a process of primary reflection on Thī; yetour clarifications will on occasion acquire a comparative character, entailing not only aconsideration of the insights developed in other Pāli textual sources, but also those set forthin a fairly wide range of Western philosophical and literary works as well as religiouswritings.
6
 
II
Conventional approaches allow little room to assume that the articulations of religious andphilosophical perspectives are notably affected by gender considerations, that is, by the biological differences between man and woman, male and female. Yet the distinctive gendercharacter of both thinking and viewing has on occasion been strikingly highlighted incertain philosophical circles
7
and it is, in any event, an important recognition amongcontemporary feminists. Now when viewed against the background of these circumstancesin particular, Thī strikes one as an interestingly instructive text. For what is encounteredhere is not only an ancient religious verse anthology of women’s authorship, but also onewhich, more significantly, often bears witness in revealing terms to women’s distinctiveassociation with and appropriation of the Buddha’s soteriological teachings. Feminism as astance that focuses upon and argues for the rights of women in the social world is of coursenot seriously underscored or projected in this text (though, as will be shown shortly, it isnoteworthy that it does on occasion stress the equality of women and men in the mentalsphere in somewhat rhetorical terms). However, feminism in another sense is very much in

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