The ancient Buddhist verse anthology known as the Therīgātha (Thī) attracted the attentionof some of the earliest Western Pāli scholars
and actually became the focus of manyadmiring comments from a very notable woman among them, Caroline Rhys Davids (whoalso rendered the anthology into metrical English).
Inquirers into the status of womenwithin the Theravāda tradition in particular have time and again drawn this remarkabletext
into their various disquisitions.
Yet its content (which has a complex significance and,especially when viewed from present-day perspectives, encompasses many strands of meaning), does not seem to have been very closely scrutinized so far. Indeed, though Thīcan be said to present an unusually attractive context for multidisciplinary investigation, it isdoubtful whether this has been seriously recognized by modern researchers in Buddhiststudies. The discussion in this article endeavours to make some amends for this situation byinitiating a brief (though nevertheless somewhat broad-based) reflective analysis of theanthology which might serve as a catalyst towards a more thorough-going revaluation of Thī and its Commentary. What follows will first highlight the feminist dimension in aselection of the
(whose women authors not unnaturally were often acutely consciousof their femininity,
); next, draw attention to the character and scope of thephilosophic viewpoints and aesthetic and poetic perceptions that are woven into some of them; and finally, dwell on the religiosity that suffuses and indeed gives unity to theanthology, underscoring above all the Buddhist
inspiration and roots of this religiosity. Thediscussion in the sequel is mainly sustained by a process of primary reflection on Thī; yetour clarifications will on occasion acquire a comparative character, entailing not only aconsideration of the insights developed in other Pāli textual sources, but also those set forthin a fairly wide range of Western philosophical and literary works as well as religiouswritings.
Conventional approaches allow little room to assume that the articulations of religious andphilosophical perspectives are notably affected by gender considerations, that is, by the biological differences between man and woman, male and female. Yet the distinctive gendercharacter of both thinking and viewing has on occasion been strikingly highlighted incertain philosophical circles
and it is, in any event, an important recognition amongcontemporary feminists. Now when viewed against the background of these circumstancesin particular, Thī strikes one as an interestingly instructive text. For what is encounteredhere is not only an ancient religious verse anthology of women’s authorship, but also onewhich, more significantly, often bears witness in revealing terms to women’s distinctiveassociation with and appropriation of the Buddha’s soteriological teachings. Feminism as astance that focuses upon and argues for the rights of women in the social world is of coursenot seriously underscored or projected in this text (though, as will be shown shortly, it isnoteworthy that it does on occasion stress the equality of women and men in the mentalsphere in somewhat rhetorical terms). However, feminism in another sense is very much in