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LDS Old Testament Handout 02: Old Testament Terms

LDS Old Testament Handout 02: Old Testament Terms

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Published by Mike Parker
All Old Testament notes: http://www.scribd.com/collections/4343354/Old-Testament-notes-for-Latter-day-Saints
Class website: http://bit.ly/ldsarc
Notes for this handout: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29505267
Slideshow for this handout: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29549340
All Old Testament notes: http://www.scribd.com/collections/4343354/Old-Testament-notes-for-Latter-day-Saints
Class website: http://bit.ly/ldsarc
Notes for this handout: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29505267
Slideshow for this handout: http://www.scribd.com/doc/29549340

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Categories:Types, Presentations
Published by: Mike Parker on Sep 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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© 2014, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.
Old Testament Terms
 A.D.
 
 Anno Domini 
 
(Latin: ―In the year of our Lord‖), an abbreviation used to refer to dates after
the birth of Jesus. Some scholars prefer
C
.
E
.
(―
Common Era
‖) to avoid religious
-related terminology. See
B
.
C
.
 A 
NCIENT
N
EAR
E
 AST
 (ANE). A term referring to the ancient regions of western Asia, including modern Iran, Turkey, Syria, Israel, and Egypt. Today this area is called the
 Middle East 
.
 A 
POCRYPHA 
. A G
REEK 
 
 word meaning ―hidden‖
that refers to books some Jewish or Christian groups regarded as scripture, but that did not receive wide acceptance. Fourteen specific Old Testament apocryphal books, originally written in G
REEK 
, are
referred to as ―
the
 Apocrypha,‖ and are found in
some Protestant B
IBLES
. (See also
PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 
.)
 A 
RAMAIC
. An ancient language, similar to H
EBREW 
, spoken by Assyrians and Babylonians.  Aramaic became the daily conversational language of J
EWS
 during their exile in Babylon (587
538
B
.
C
.).  Aramaic was the language spoken by Jesus and his disciples.
 A 
UTHORIZED
 V 
ERSION
. See K 
ING
J
 AMES
 V 
ERSION
.
B.C.
 
―Before Christ,‖ an abbreviation used to refer
to dates before the birth of Jesus. Some scholars prefer
B
.
C
.
E
.
(―
Before the Common Era
‖) to avoid
religious-related terminology. See
 A 
.
D
.
B
IBLE
. See C
HRISTIAN
B
IBLE
;
 
H
EBREW
B
IBLE
.
C
 ANON
.
 A Latin word meaning ―measuring rod,‖
referring to a list of books considered to be authoritative scripture by a particular religious community. For J
EWS
 the H
EBREW
B
IBLE
 is canon; Christians accept the O
LD
 and N
EW
T
ESTAMENTS
 as their canon. Latter-day Saints also include in their canon the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price.
C
HRISTIAN
B
IBLE
.
 
The collection of 66 books that have been bound into a single volume and considered to be scripture by Christians. See
 APOCRYPHA 
;
 CANON
;
 
H
EBREW
B
IBLE
;
 
N
EW
T
ESTAMENT
;
 
O
LD
T
ESTAMENT
.
D
EAD
S
EA
S
CROLLS
 (DSS). A collection of 972 complete and fragmentary texts, written on
PARCHMENT
,
PAPYRUS
, and bronze between the 3rd century
B
.
C
. and the 1st century
 A 
.
D
. The materials  were written by a group of separatist Jews, who hid the materials in caves near the Dead Sea at the end of the 1st century
 A 
.
D
. They were discovered in the late 1940s. The collection contains many texts from and related to the H
EBREW
B
IBLE
.
D
EUTERO
-I
SAIAH
. Beginning in the 18th century, Biblical scholars proposed that the Book of Isaiah  was written by several independent authors and later compiled into a single work. This theory was developed in response to differences in message, tone, and word usage between chapters 1
39 (called
―Proto
-
Isaiah‖), 40–55 (―Deutero
-
Isaiah‖), and 56–66 (―Trito
-
Isaiah‖). This theory continues today as
the primary (though not undisputed) explanation for the origin of the book of Isaiah.
D
OCUMENTARY
H
 YPOTHESIS
 (DH): The theory that the T
ORAH
 was originally written as several independent sources and later combined into its current form by a series of redactors (editors). The hypothesis was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries, based on attempts to reconcile inconsistencies in the biblical text. This theory continues today as the primary (though not undisputed) explanation for the origin of the Torah.
DSS
. See D
EAD
S
EA
S
CROLLS
.
D
 YNAMIC EQUIVALENCE
. A method of translating scripture by rendering the meanings of phrases or  whole sentences. It favors translating texts
―thought for thought,‖ rather than ―word for word,‖ with the
goal of making the text more understandable for modern-English readers. Compare
FORMAL EQUIVALENCE
.
F
ORMAL EQUIVALENCE
. A method of translating scripture by rendering the meanings of individual  words as close as possible to their sequence in the original languages. It favors translating
texts ―word for word,‖ rather than ―thought for thought,‖ with
the goal of transmitting the text as faithfully as possible from the original. Compare
DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE
.
G
REEK 
. The language of the Greeks spread throughout the A 
NCIENT
N
EAR
E
 AST
 after Alexander the Great conquered the region in 332
B
.
C
. J
EWS
  began to adopt Greek language and scholarship, and the H
EBREW
B
IBLE
 was translated into Greek in the 3rd and 2nd centuries
B
.
C
.
 
(see S
EPTUAGINT
). The N
EW
T
ESTAMENT
 was written in Greek.
H
EBREW 
. The Canaanite language spoken by ancient Israel from the 10th to 7th centuries
B
.
C
., (after which they spoke A 
RAMAIC
). The earliest Hebrew alphabet (
 Paleo-Hebrew
) had 22 consonants; a 27-consonant alphabet was developed from Aramaic after the 6th century
B
.
C
. Jewish scholars continued to write the H
EBREW
B
IBLE
in Hebrew after it was no longer spoken on a day-to-day basis (see M
 ASORETIC
T
EXT
).
H
EBREW
B
IBLE
. The books of scripture accepted  by J
EWS
, called the O
LD
T
ESTAMENT
 by Christians.  Also known as the T
 ANAKH
.
J
EW 
. Strictly speaking, an Israelite from the tribe of Judah. After the Assyrians removed the ten northern tribes in 722
B
.
C
., only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained, and
 Jewish
 eventually  became synonymous for anyone of Israelite descent.
J
OSEPH
S
MITH
T
RANSLATION
 (JST). Joseph Smith was commanded by the Lord to produce an inspired revision to the K 
ING
J
 AMES
 V 
ERSION
 of the Bible. Portions of the JST have been included in the Pearl of Great Price (see
CANON
) as the
 Book of  Moses
 and
 Joseph Smith
 Matthew
; other

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