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Disk Operating System

Disk Operating System

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Published by husnainmasood
General Commands Of DOS.
General Commands Of DOS.

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Published by: husnainmasood on Sep 14, 2013
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Disk Operating System
Internal Commands:
Internal commands are loaded with MS-DOS into system memory. They are containedwith the command processor,
COMMAND.COM.
Internal commands can not be alteredor deleted and do not appear in the listing of the MS-DOS directory.The following are some internal commands:CLSDELRDPATHRENMDPROMPTTYPECDDATECOPYDIRTIMEVERVOL
External Commands:
External commands are contained with in individual files with extension of
COM 
or
 EXE.
These commands can be copied, renamed or deleted and appear in the listing of theMS-DOS directory.The following are some external commands:FORMATXCOPYUNFORMATUNDELETECHKDSKMOVEDISKCOPYPRINTDISKCOMPTREE
Function/Shortcut Keys
F1Displays the previous command, one character at a timeF2Displays all characters in the previous command up to the characterthat was entered after the F2 key is pressed.F3Display the previous command.Ctrl + CTerminates/ cancels the current command.Ctrl + Msame as enter key,Ctrl + SPauseCtrl + Alt+ DelResets the computer.
 
WORKING WITH FILESNaming files
The name must be from one to eight characters in length and may have anextension of up to three characters.
Do not use the following symbols in a file name
:
“/\[]|<>+=; , *?
Use period to separate the name from the extension.
You cannot use blank or spaces.
Two files in the same directory cannot have the same name and extension.
Using Extensions
The following rules apply to filename extension:
Use a period followed by a maximum of three characters for the extension.
Choose the characters for the extension from the same list of rules used for thefile name.
Do not use any spaces between the file name and the extension.
Using the ? Wildcard
You can use the
?
character as a substitute for a single character position in a filename orextension.For example:
DEL ?BC
Using the * Wildcard
MS-DOS recognizes the asterisk (
*
) character in a file name or extension as a substitutefor any number of character positions. You can substitute an asterisk for one to eightcharacter positions in the filename and one to the character positions in the extension.MS-DOS treats the asterisk as a series of question marks.For example:To delete all the files with an extension .DOC in the current directory, enter thefollowing:
 DEL *.DOC 
 
WORKING WITH DIRECTORIESDefining Directories:
The relationship of a MS-DOS directory to other MS-DOS directories is described by thefollowing terms: root directory, subdirectory, current directory and parent directory.
Root Directory
The Root Directory
(\)
is the main directory on a disk. MS-DOS creates the RootDirectory each time it format a disk. The Root Directory cannot be removed.The maximum number of entries in a root directory depends on the capacity of a disketteor hard drive. For example, the root directory on a formatted 1.44 MB diskette cancontains up to 224 entries. The root directory on a hard drive can stores up to 512 entries.
Sub Directory
All directories below the root directory are called subdirectories. Subdirectories cancontain any number of files and other subdirectories. Some limiting factors are theamount of space available on the disk and the maximum number of characters (64) for apath.
Current Directory
The current directory is the directory in which you are currently working.For Example:
C:\Windows>
Windows is a current directory in above example.
Parent Directory
The parent directory is one level above the current directory in the tree structure.For Example:
C:\WINDOWS\MSOFFICE>WINDOWS
is the parent directory of
 MS-OFFICE
in the above path.

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