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Lec 2 - Discrete Time Fourier Transform

# Lec 2 - Discrete Time Fourier Transform

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11/13/2012

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1
Discrete Time Fourier Transform
Maryam Mahsal Khan (Lecturer)
»B.Sc(CSE) UET Peshawar»M.Sc(EE) –UTP Malaysia
Representation of Sequencesby Fourier Transforms
Many
sequences
can be represented by a Fourierintegral of the form asFrequency response of a
LTI system
is simply theFourier transform of the impulse response.
n jn j
en xe X
ω ω
−∞=
=
][)(
.)(21][
ω π
ω π π ω
ee X n x
n j j
∫
=
n jn j
enhe H
ω ω
−∞=
=
][)( .)(21][
ω π
ω π π ω
ee H nh
n j j
∫
=
The frequency response of discrete-time LTI system isalways a periodic function with period 2
π
.
integer.anfor),()(generally,More
)2(
e H e H
j j
ω π ω
=
+
)(][][)(
)2()2(
ω ω π ω π ω
jnn jnn j j
e H enhenhe H
===
−∞=−∞=++
Representation of Sequencesby Fourier TransformsFourier Transform (Convergence)
Determining the class of signals that can be representedFourier transform is equivalent to considering theconvergence of the infinite sum of the Fourier transform.Asufficientcondition for convergence can be found asThus, if a sequence is absolutely summable, then its Fouriertransform exists. The series can be shown to convergeuniformly to a continuous function of
ω
.Since a
stable sequence
is, by definition,
absolutely summable
, all stable sequences have Fourier transforms.
<=
−∞=−∞=−∞=
nn jnn jn j
n xen xen xe X
][][][)(
ω ω ω

2
Fourier Transform (Interpretation)
Signals: The Fourier Transform of a signal
[
]describes thefrequency content of the signal.
At each frequency , the magnitude spectrumdescribes the amount of that frequency contained in the signal.
At each frequency , the phase spectrumdescribes the location (relative shift) of that frequencycomponent of the signal.
Systems: The frequency response of a linear systemdescribeshow frequencies input to the system are modified:
An input frequency component is amplified or attenuatedby a factor
An input frequency component is shifted by an amount
)(
ω
j
e X
0
ω
)(
0
ω
j
e X
0
ω
)(
0
ω
j
e X
)(
ω
j
e H
0
ω
.)(
0
ω
j
e H
0
ω
).(
0
ω
j
e H
Example 2.19 Ideal Frequency-SelectiveFilters: Ideal Lowpass filter
DTFT of Ideal Low-Pass FilterContd..
Convergence of the Fourier TransformThe oscillatory behaviourGibbs Phenomena
( )
ω ω
π ω
j M  M nc j M
enne H
=
=
sin

3
Frequency-Domain Representationof Discrete-Time Systems
Eigenfunctions for LTI system
Consider an input sequenceThe corresponding output of a LTI discrete-time system withimpulse response is
If we define
Then we have
We define as an eigenfunctionof the system, and theassociated eigenvalue is .
,for][
<<=
nen x
n j
ω
][
nh
.][][][*][][
)(
⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===
−∞=−∞=
jn j n j
eheehnhn xn y
ω ω ω
,][)(
−∞=
=
j j
ehe H
ω ω
.)(][
n j j
ee H n y
ω ω
=
n j
e
ω
)(
ω
j
e H
Frequency-Domain Representationof Discrete-Time Systems (Cont’d)
Frequency response of the system is defined as
Real and imaginary representation
Magnitude and phase polar representation
,][)(
−∞=
=
j j
ehe H
ω ω
)()()(
ω ω ω
j I  j R j
e jH e H e H
+=
.)()(
)(
ω
ω ω
j
e H  j j j
ee H e H
=
Example 2.17 Frequency Response ofthe Ideal Delay
Consider the ideal delay system defined by
If we consider as input to this system.
Then we have the output
Therefore, the frequency response of the ideal delay is
Real and imaginary representation
Magnitude and phase representation
integer.fixedaiswhere],[][
nnn xn y
=
n j
en x
ω
=
][
n jn jnn j
eeen y
ω ω ω
==
)(
][
.)(
n j j
ee H
ω ω
=
).sin()cos()(
j
n jne H
ω ω
ω
+=
.)(and 1)(
j j
ne H e H
ω
ω ω
==
Example 2.20 Frequency Responseof the Moving-Average System
The impulse response of a moving-average system is
The frequency response is
++=
otherwise.0,11][
2121
M n M  M  M nh
=
++=
21
11)(
21
M  M nn j j
e M  M e H
ω ω
ω ω ω
j M  j M  j
eee M  M
+
++=
111
)1(21
21
.)2 / sin( )2 / )1(sin( 11
2 / )( 2121
12
M  j
e M  M  M  M
++++=
ω
ω ω