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Daylight Prototypes: from Simulation Data to Four-Dimensional Artefact; Max C. Doelling, Ben Jastram.

Daylight Prototypes: from Simulation Data to Four-Dimensional Artefact; Max C. Doelling, Ben Jastram.

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Published by Max C D
Peer-reviewed conference paper; CAADRIA 2013, National University of Singapore.
Peer-reviewed conference paper; CAADRIA 2013, National University of Singapore.

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Published by: Max C D on Sep 15, 2013
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04/24/2014

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DAYLIGHTPROTOTYPES: FROM SIMULATION DATATOFOUR-DIMENSIONALARTEFACT
Physical metrics models in sustainable design education
Max C. DOELLING and Ben JASTRAM
Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germanymax@spacesustainers.org, jastram@math.tu-berlin.de
Abstract.
The increasing use of building performance simulation in architec-tural design enriches digital models and derived prototyping geometries withperformance data that makes them analytically powerful artefacts serving sus-tainable design. In our class “Parametric Design”, students perform concurrentthermal and daylight optimization during the architectural ideation process,employing digital simulation tools, and also utilize rapid prototyping tech-niques to produce process artefacts and whole-building analysis models withclimate-based daylight metrics physically embedded. Simulation metrics aremerged with prototyping geometries to be output on a colour-capable Zprinter;the resultant hybrid artefacts simultaneously allow three-dimensional formal aswell as whole-year daylight performance evaluation, rendering analysis scopefour-dimensional. They embody a specific epistemological type that we com-pare to other model instances and posit to be an example of multivalentrepresentation, a formal class that aids knowledge accretion in performance-based design workflows and allows designers to gain a physically reframedunderstanding of geometry-performance relationships.
Keywords.
Rapid prototyping; building performance modelling; daylightsimulation; physical data models; design representation.
1.Introduction: Rapid Prototyping and Performance Simulation
Digital design media has undergone several decisive paradigm changes throughoutthe last decades. The shift from two-dimensional CAD to parametrically responsive,data-enriched digital models has evolved the perception of architecture-in-progressfrom a play of static representations towards the interaction with dynamic codifica-tions of constraints and form. In parallel, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques haveestablished a direct link with subsets of the material realm. These developments
R. Stouffs, P. Janssen, S. Roudavski, B. Tunçer (eds.),
Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th InternationalConference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA2013)
, 159–168. © 2013,TheAssociation for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, andCenter for Advanced Studies in Architecture (CASA), Department of Architecture-NUS, Singapore.
159
 
have fundamentally influenced the way architectural design is practiced, taught andresearched, both on the level of design epistemology and in the way representativeprocess artefacts are understood (Sass and Oxman, 2006). With the formal and func-tional possibilities of the dynamic ideation-production complex tentativelyestablished, attempts are currently being made under the auspices of sustainablearchitecture to integrate simulation-based performance prediction into the main-stream of environmental design activities (Venancio et al., 2011; Hetherington et al.,2011). Consequently, RPmodels become linked to simulation data sources, yet stillexist as their own epistemological category. How data-rich design environments canimbue them with additional representational and analytical properties is explored inthis paper; previous work on data-embedded prototypes performed at the MilwaukeeSchool of Engineering acts as proof-of-concept precedent (Bolda, 2008).
1.1.CLASS BACKGROUND AND PAPER STRUCTURE
The class “Parametric Design”, during which the 1:250 scale daylight models pre-sented in this paper were generated, teaches energy and daylight simulation in adesign context. Students create their own building layouts, in the discussed semesterbased on the brief of an office building. They improve energy efficiency and daylightutilization by means of adapting architectural form using DesignBuilder, an interfaceto the simulation engine EnergyPlus (Crawley et al., 2000), and DIVA(Jakubiec andReinhart, 2011), a daylight simulation plugin for the modeller Rhinoceros3d.One of three sites in different climate zones (Östersund, Sweden; Hashtgerd,Iran; Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA) is to be individually chosen by students,resulting in designs that are in massing and envelope visibly attuned to therespective environmental conditions. Studies of alternative construction materi-als and passive conditioning are not part of the class, since it is primarilyconcerned with the comparative effects of building geometry. As such, the finalartefacts built by students would in reality likely not reflect the last iteration butinstead serve as an evaluation milestone; the models are thus regarded as in-process representations outlining intended form.Three main assignments take students through the design-optimization process,beginning with heuristic design seed generation, continuing with partial simula-tions and finally encompassing whole-building calculations. Optimization isachieved by investigating geometric properties like orientation, window-to-wallratio changes and fixed shading devices. Despite featuring iterativeevaluations, integrated design is usually not a linear or rational activity, as previ-ously reported by the authors. Instead, cross-domain representations serve tocontinuously enrich form-performance knowledge, which in return improvesheuristic decision-making (Doelling and Nasrollahi, 2012). The artefacts discussed
160M. C. DOELLING AND B. JASTRAM
 
herein accompany this process; whole-building metrics models are preceded by testgeometries to gradually approach a holistic design state. This paper presents twophysical daylight models (Figure 1), their prior test artefacts and positions them inthe overall workflow. It provides the theoretical background of daylight simulationand explains model production. Finally, we derive the models’representational andprocessual properties and discuss their usefulness for sustainable design.
2.Daylight Prototypes: General Properties
Since light behaves identically at life-size and model dimensions when surfaceproperties are analogous, simulation scale models have been used extensively inarchitectural design. Digital daylight evaluation has now surpassed previous meth-ods in analytical scope, hence main simulation work in our class is performed bycomputing climate-based daylight metrics that display the percentage of inhabi-tant-occupied hours of a whole year when illuminance meets a set target (Reinhartand Wienold, 2010). The prototypes show the metrics “Daylight Availability”(DA) in office spaces, tuned to 300 lux as per IESNArecommendation (Rae,2000) and “Useful Daylight Illuminance” (UDI) 100–2000 lux embedded in non-office spaces with varying daylight requirements. UDI values of 100 to 2000 lux,which are generally useful (Nabil and Mardaljevic, 2006), describe an illuminancerange that indicates the remaining zones’overall daylight potential.
DAYLIGHTPROTOTYPES161
Figure 1.Rapid-prototyped daylight models, Florida (left) and Iran (right), with DA300 and UDI 100–2000 lux metrics embedded.

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