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fluids and iv therapy
fluids and iv therapy

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Published by: Amy on Jun 27, 2009
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NUR 105 CE2 / 5-27-09
Med~Surg Homework 
IV Therapy~ Terms & Questions ~Isotonic Fluids-
a crystalloid fluid that is the same osmolality as the ECFand does not cause RBC's to shrink or swell.
Example of isotonic fluid-
Some examples of isotonic fluids would beD5W, 0.9%NaCl, and Lactated Ringer's solution.
When would isotonic fluids be used?
Isotonic fluids are used toexpand the extracellular fluid volume. One liter of isotonic fluid expandsthe ECF by 1L, but the same amount only expands the plasma by 0.25Lbecause of the fluids crystalloid composition; due to this difference if 2L of blood were to be lost it would take 6L of isotonic fluids to replace the lostvolume.
Hypotonic Fluids-
a fluid solution that has a lower osmolality than thebody serum, less than 250mEq/L
Example of hypotonic fluid-
An example of a hypotonic solution wouldbe 1/2 strength normal saline.
When would hypotonic fluids be used?
Hypotonic fluids are used forthe purposes of replacing cellular fluids and to provide free water forexcretion of body wastes. Hypernatremia and other hyperosmolarconditions are also sometimes treated by using hypotonic fluid infusions.
Hypertonic Fluids-
Has a greater osmolality than the body serum at375mEq/L. Hypertonic fluids draw water from the ICF into the ECF.
Example of hypertonic fluid-
An example of a hypertonic solutionwould be saline with 50% dextrose.
When would hypertonic fluids be used?
Some hypertonic solutionssuch as NS with 5% dextrose are hypertonic when administered but thebody quickly metabolizes the dextrose and is left with a hypotonic solution.Solutions with a greater osmolality than the body's serum such as H2O w/50% Dextrose can be used to help meet caloric needs, these solutions arehighly hypertonic and must be administered through a central vein so thatdilution can occur. Some saline solutions are also available with a greaterosmolality than serum and these solutions draw water from the ICF to theECF.
How many blood types are there, and what are they?
There arefour main blood types: A, B, AB, and O these blood types may be Rhpositive or Rh negative. It is very important to test donor blood with therecipient before any type of transfusion of blood products or serious and/oreven fatal reactions could occur.
What is an Rh factor?
The Rh factor is an antigen also called the D-antigen that is present on 85% of the populations erythrocytes. Thepersons who lack the antigen are considered Rh negative When bloodproducts are being processed for donation the blood must be the same Rhfactor or antibodies could form and destroy the new blood cells that wereintroduced into the recipient, which could prove to be fatal.
What blood type is the universal donor?
Persons who have theblood type of O Rh- are considered to be the universal donors; meaningthat their blood can be given to any of the other blood types. O- blood typedoes not have the A, B or D(Rh) antigen present allowing the blood to beaccepted by all other blood types.
What blood type is the universal recipient?
The blood type of ABRh+ is considered to be the universal recipient; meaning that the peoplewith this blood type can receive blood from any of the other groups sincethis blood type carries both A and B antigens. Transfusions will work if aperson who is going to receive blood has a blood group that doesn't haveany
antibodies against the donor blood's antigens.
But if a person who isgoing to receive blood has antibodies matching the donor blood's antigens,the red blood cells in the
donated blood 
will clump.
Table:Which blood types can receive blood from what other types??
BloodGroupAntigensAntibodiesCan giveblood toCan receiveblood from
AB A and B None AB AB, A, B, 0A A BA andABA and 0B B AB andABB and 00 None A and BAB, A, B,00
Table from: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/readmore.html

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