Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1


|Views: 202|Likes:
Published by miningnova
The effect of polymeric Flocculants on settling characteristics of iron ore ultra fines from Karnataka, India are presented here.
The effect of polymeric Flocculants on settling characteristics of iron ore ultra fines from Karnataka, India are presented here.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: miningnova on Jun 27, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Mineral Processing Technology (MPT 2007)
Effect of Various Flocculants on the SettlingCharacteristics of Iron Ore Ultra- Fines
R.P. Bhagat, K.V. Rao
S. Chandra Sekhar 
MNP Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory Jamshedpur-831 007, India
The effect of polymeric Flocculants on settling characteristics of iron ore ultra fines fromKarnataka, India are presented here. The Flocculating efficacies of the flocculants namely, Magnafloc E
,Magnafloc 1011, FL 4934 and RF 8140 have been investigated at various dosages and their performance has been evaluated in terms of the settling rate. A remarkable improvement in the settling rate has been observedwith the addition of the flocculant(s) when compared with the blank condition (without any flocculant). Thesettling rate increases with increasing flocculant dosage. Batch settling test has been employed to study thekinetics of particle sedimentation. The settling curves have reflected two distinct settling zones: (a) initialsettling zone, where the slope of the curve is constant and steepest (b) the compression zone which ischaracterized by a non-linear segment of the curve with decreased settling rate when compression starts.Empirical model has been developed for the setting in the compression zone which is based on the premisesthat the rate of descent of the supernatant/suspension interface is proportional to the height of the suspension.
Flocculation of mineral suspensions using polyacryl amides has been investigated by manyauthors (Heller & Pugh, 1960; Healy 1961; Healy& Lamer, 1962). In relation to iron ore fines,these polymers are generally used as flocculatingagents to enhance the thickener performance.Several models, such as, Richardson & Zaki(1954), Kynch (1952), Hawkesly (1951), Steinour (1944) etc, have been well-described in theliterature relating the particle settling rate to solidconcentration. Mathematical correlations such asthose developed by Richardson & Zaki (1954)describe the maximum settling rate in terms of Stock’s settling velocity and volumeconcentration of solid. Previous study on typicaliron ore slimes has shown that kinetics datafollow Michaels and Bolger (1962) equationderived from the Richardson and Zaki model inthe initial settling zone of the settling curve(Bhagat 1994), whereas these follow first order kinetics in the compression zone (Bhagat 1995).However these correlations pertained to theunflocculated (without any addition of flocculant)iron ore slimes. In the present paper we haveestablished the model in the compression zonewhen flocculants are used.
All flocculation experiments were conductedusing iron ore ultra fines from M/S Mineral SalesPrivate Limited, Karnataka, India. The sub- sieveanalysis of the sample indicated that 96.8% wt.fraction was below 40 micron size. The chemicalanalysis of the sample in wt % is Fe (T): 56.34,SiO
: 16.13 and Al
: 1.5. Mineralogical studyof the sample reveals that hematite was the major mineral phase, other phases that could beidentified in the sample are: Quartz, Gibbsite, andKaolinite.
2.2 Flocculants
Magnafloc 1011 & Magnafloc E10, procuredfrom M/s Allied Colloids Ltd. Magnafloc 1011was a high molecular weight and Magnafloc E10was a very high molecular weight slightly anionic polyacrylamide. RF 8140 a low anionic highmolecular weight polyacrylamide was supplied by M/S Rishabh Metal and FL 4934 was highmolecular weight polyacrylamide supplied bySNF India Ltd, Hyderabad, India. Their acid noare determined in our laboratory are found to be3.366; 11.92; 8.976 and 11.92 for Magnafloc E
Mineral Processing Technology (MPT 2007)
Magnafloc 1011; FL 4934 and RF 8140respectively.
2.3 Zeta Potential
Zeta-potential values of the sample weredetermined using a Laser Zee Meter (Pen KemInc., model 501) equipped with video systemapparatus employing a flat cell. 1.0 g/l mineralsuspension was prepared in 10
supportingelectrolyte solution conditioned for 1 hour atroom temperature (28
C) at a specified pH. Atemperature correction was made using theformulae supplied with the instrument. The valuesof zeta potential (in mV) were –3.7, -24.2 and –50.13 at 1.5, 6.2 and 10.3 pH respectively. It isapparent that the PZC was below 1.5 pH.
2.4 Settling Tests
Settling test was carried out in a batch 500 mlgraduated cylinder. Suspension of the requiredconcentration was taken in a cylinder. It wasdispersed by inverting the cylinder up and downten times. The settling rate of particles wasmeasured by noting down the movement of suspension-liquid interface as a function of timetill the situation when compression of slurry ends.The settling rate was determined by plotting theheight, z, of the interface plane between the slurryand supernatant as function of time.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION3.1 Various Zones of Settling
The results on settling have been depicted in(Figs. 1-2) for 14% initial solid concentrations/ pulp density (PD) with 0.002 Kg/T and 0.004Kg/T flocculants dosage respectively.It is apparent from these figures that the,two distinct zones of settling namely, (a) settlingat constant rate and b) settling in compressionzone, as described earlier in the paper, wereobserved.
0255075100125150175200225250012345678910Time (min)
   I  n   t  e  r   f  a  c  e   H  e   i  g   h   t   (  m  m   )
Without FlocculantMagna Floc E10Magna Floc 1011FL 4934RF 81400.004 Kg/T
Fig. 1:
Settling curves at 0.002 Kg/T.
02550751001251501752002252500123456789Time (min)
   I  n   t  e  r   f  a  c  e   H  e   i  g   h   t   (  m  m   )
Without FlocculantMagna Floc E10Magna Floc 1011FL 4934RF 81400.002 Kg/T
Fig. 2:
Settling curves at 0.004 Kg/T
3.2 Effect of Flocculant Type andDosage
Different flocculants used in the present study haddifferent flocculation efficacy as apparent fromthe settling characteristics shown in Tables 1&2.With the increase in the dosage of flocculantfrom 0.002 Kg/T to 0.004 Kg/T (solid/solid basis)following observations were noted:(a) enormous increase in the initial settling rate atall the PDs and significant decrease in theliquid/solid ratio at ultimate pulp at 14% PD inrelation to RF 8140. (b) In case of FL 4934significant increase in the initial settling rate at allPDs.The liquid/solid ratio at ultimate pulp densitydecreased marginally at 14% PD, however thesame increased at 10 & 12% PDs. (c) FlocculantMagnafloc E10 exhibited trend similar to RF8140. Significant increase in the initial settling
Effect of Various Flocculants on the Setting Characteristics of Iron Ore Ultra-Fines
rate and decrease in liquid/solid ratio at ultimate pulp density at all PDs. The changes were more prominent at 12 and 14% PDs compared to 10%PD. (d) In relation to Magnafloc 1011 enormousdecrease in the initial settling rate at all PDs whileno change in the liquid/solid ratio at ultimate pulpdensity was observed at 10% and 12% PDs. At14% PD the liquid to solid ratio at ultimate pulpdensity decreased to a minimum value (0.27).
Table 1:
Settling characteristics of iron ore fines at 0.002 Kg/T dosage.
PulpDensity Initial Settling Rate(mm/min)Pulp Density after 19hWater with solid after 19h (ml)Liquid/Solid ratio at ultimate Pulp Density (g/g)10 %12%14 %10%12%14%10%12%14%10%12%14%
NoFlocculant51.749.543.81.671.711.751725250.340.420.36Magnafloc101110090.283.91.431.51.562226310.440.430.44MagnaflocE1098.911398.51.431.331.42535350.50.580.5FL 493464.365.854.91.431.51.42220340.440.330.49RF 814012813983.91.431.51.42731420.540.520.6
Table 2:
Settling characteristics of iron ore fines at 0.004 Kg/T dosage.
PulpDensity Initial Settling Rate(mm/min)Pulp Density after 19hWater with solid afte19h (ml)Liquid/Solid ratio at ultimate Pulp Density (g/g)10 %12%14 %10%12%14%10%12%14%10%12%14%
Magnafloc101151.135.430.71.431.51.752225190.440.420.27MagnaflocE101001921791.431.51.462123280.420.380.4FL 493485.211288.71.351.391.42531310.50.520.44RF 81402042202021.431.331.42532340.50.530.49
3.3 Settling in Compression Zone:Model Development
From Figs (1-2) it is apparent that the rate of settling gradually decreases in the compressionzone as time progress. The model developed inthe present work is based on the premise that themovement of supernatant / suspension interfacewas proportional to the height of the suspension.Mathematically,
- dZ / dt = K (Z – Z
) …. (1) (or)ln (Z– Z
) = - K ( t– t
) + ln ( Z
– Z
) .. (2)
Where, Z, Z
, and Z
are the suspension heights attime, t, at the infinite time, and at the time whenthe suspension reaches the critical concentration(the time when compression starts) respectively.
012345600.511.522.533.5Time ( t - t
), min
   L  n   (   Z
  -   Z   ) ,   Z   i  n  m  m
Magnafloc E10Magnafloc 1011FL 4934RF 8140
0.002 Kg/T
Fig. 3:
Logarithmic settling curves at0.002 Kg/T
Therefore, a plot of ln (Z Z
) versus thesettling time should result in a straight line.Fig. (3-4) shows the plots of ln (Z – Z
) against

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
MickShazan liked this
MickShazan liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->