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What Medical Students Should Know About Antibiotics

What Medical Students Should Know About Antibiotics

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Published by doctorrao
What Medical Students Should Know About Antibiotics
What Medical Students Should Know About Antibiotics

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Published by: doctorrao on Sep 16, 2013
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09/21/2013

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What Medical Students Should know About Antibiotics?
Dr.T.V.Rao MD
The discovery of antibiotics in the 1940
’s has heralded a new age for people’s health.
Theseamazing new treatments could cure illness and even prevent deaths. The vast majority of deathsbefore the mid-20th century were caused by
microbes
bacteria, amoebas, protozoans orviruses that
 
ruled the Earth and to a lesser extent still do. It’s not always clear which microbes get the
credit for which kills. Thanks to germ theory of disease,
didn’t catch on all that quickly, but once it did,
people started washing their hands. Soap became cheaper and more widespread, and people suddenlyhad a logical reason to wash up before surgery, after defecating, before eating. Soap stops both deadly
and lingering infections; even today, kids who don’t have access to soap and clean water have stunted
growth. The curriculum on Antibiotics is taught to Medical Students as core subject in Pharmacology , just mentioning the names of different
Antibiotics in Microbiology
 
with greater clinical teachingsand applications in Final years of MBBS, Yet there is not topic in integrating the consequences of using,misusing, and the consequences of Antibiotic use. In the residency or House surgeon ship programme,of 1 year, one rapidly rotates between the departments, before they get a hold on learning theprescribing trends in Antibiotic prescriptions. Major studies have identified including
WHO
that littleof the matters are taught on Misuse of antibiotics and the consequences, which lead to poor status onAntibiotic prescriptions, lacking scientific prescriptions. We are turning the Doctors with lacuna in useof antibiotics for full-fledged Medical practice, and young Doctors are guided by Medicalrepresentatives, as they believe, to catch them young to turn the business a success. Every one aggress
today’s economic de
velopment and progress and reduction of, morbidity mortality is associated withrationalistic prescription of several antibiotics. In spite of millions of lives have been saved byantibiotics, but what if they did not work any longer? What would we do? Unfortunately, we arecoming face to face wi
th that problem as various ‘
microbes
’ become resistant to major groups of 
antibiotics. The
Young Doctors
should realise, Viruses, on the other hand, do not respond toantibiotics. While responsible for illnesses like coughs, sore throats, most ear infections and thecommon cold, all are
virus-caused
 
and none will respond to antibiotics. In other words, being sickdoes not automatically mean you need antibiotics, it has been observed that young Doctors switch toantibiotic use, majority studies prove that many of prescription of the Genera physicians are includedwith antibiotics, Over time, bacteria can change and become completely resistant to a whole class of antibiotics. Once resistance has been reached, defeating
the ‘resistant bacteria” means
having to usemore and more powerful antibiotics. One example of this resistance is
methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus, or MRSA.
 
This is one type of “staph
ylococcus
” infection that is resistant to
most antibiotics. It has become a so-
called ‘super
-
bug’ that is very difficult to cure
, and continues to bean important cause of 
Nosocomial Infections
. There are even more resistant bacteria, and newantibiotics are coming along more slowly which are expensive and attain the resistance if used withoutcaution. In the past the hospitals in west were afraid of having MRSA in their wards even they prefer toclose the wards, in developed countries, however we rarely bother and fail take steps to control thespread. The young doctors would be ideal ambassadors to promote the knowledge on Vaccines andtheir usage, as vaccines have almost eliminated diseases that used to be common killers, but she
points out that “they’re still circulating in other parts of the world, and if we don’t continue tovaccinate, they could come back.” Some credit for the historical decrease in
deadly diseases may go to
 
the disease agents themselves. Some fortunately disappeared like
plague, small pox withsuccessful vaccination by WHO,
and giving way to newer pathogens, which are turning out be Drugresistant which were not considered as potential pathogens in the past, never forget many uncommonmicrobes are encroaching on Humans.
Today’s challenge continues with majority of 
Gram negativebacteria
, A recent
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
 study identified increasing resistanceto a class of drugs called
Cephalosporins
, which are commonly used to treat severe Salmonellainfections in adults and are the main drug of choice when treating children, for whom thefluoroquinolone class of drugs is not recommended. The CDC study found that the main mechanism of resistance to cephalosporins is the production of beta-lactamases, which are enzymes that manage toinactivate the antimicrobial agent. Of concern to the researchers is the fact that the genes related toantimicrobial resistance are often mobile, moving between bacteria and Salmonella serotypes,humans and animals. I wish we the medical professionals alone need not be blamed for the illsassociated with Antibiotic resistance, improper agricultural, and vet nary use of antibiotics is oftenblamed as a main contributor to the problem of drug-resistant Salmonella, but other studies havefailed to find evidence that these practices contribute to increased antibiotic resistance. Other theoriesfor the development of resistance exist, such as improper use of antibiotics among humans, or even,the spread of antibiotic-resistant clonal types not influenced by antibiotic use in animals or humans.
The real threat of Antibiotic resistance fall on the patient’s admitted in the Hospital even with triv
ialconditions. However, major overuse has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance, where by majorinfections build up a resistance to drugs that have been used over a long period of time and in greatnumbers. As a result, many antibiotics are becoming less effective at treating infections in India andworldwide. This can be a particularly serious problem in hospitals, where patients who have hadprocedures, or who are getting major surgery, or are in intensive care, are prone to developing
'superbugs'
 
that are resistant to many antibiotics. These can cause serious illness and death. Current
concepts to put a stop to use of antibiosis in a defined period and not making the patient’s to use the
Antibiotic erratically ,the researchers developed a new prescribing protocol for these patients, whichincluded automatic stop dates, with time limits on prescriptions depending on the severity of aninfection. In other words, people with more severe infections would take the drugs for longer periodsthan those with milder infections.
The following have been identified as important strategies to contain Antibiotic Resistance
Improve how we prevent and manage infections in people and in animals; including through betterhygiene and monitoring of bacteria in medical and community settings, and through better farmingpractices.Improve education and training around the prescribing of antibiotics to reduce inappropriate usageand make sure patients get the right antibiotics, at the right time and for the right duration.Collect better data on the resistance of bacteria, so we can track them more effectively, find the mostresistant bacteria and step in earlier where there is resistance to antibiotics.Better documentation of Antibiograms and informal Audits of Antibiotic usage and drug resistancepatterns can help us to know the changing trends on concerns on Antibiotic misuse.

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