Nassim Nicholas Taleb on Accepting Uncertainty, Embracing Volatility
The day before a big game, regardless of the sport, a team's coach or star player is often asked, "How will you stop the opposing team tomorrow?"The answer typically goes something like this: "We can't worry about theother team. We just have to play our game."That, in a very simplified nutshell, is the essence of Nassim NicholasTaleb's highly polemical, always thought-provoking new book,
Antifragile:Things That Gain from Disorder.
Here, though, the opponent is not another team's slugger, quarterback or point guard, but the future and change. Thedefining characteristic of future change, according to Taleb (who continuesa line of argument developed in previous books like
Fooled by Randomness
), is that it is impossible, and foolhardy, to try to predictit. Instead, the author argues, it is essential to make peace with uncertainty,randomness and volatility. Those who do not -- who insist not only ontrying to predict the future, but also on somehow trying to manage it -- hedisparagingly calls "fragilistas."
is divided into seven sections that Taleb calls "books." In a prologue, he explains that each is, in a sense, a long personal essay, "mixing autobiographical musingsand parables with more philosophical and scientific investigations." The author introduces fictionalcharacters such as Fat Tony, who epitomizes the straight-talking "street" knowledge of the practitioner asopposed to the fragilista. In addition to "fragilista," he coins or adopts a number of other terms; delvesinto extended asides on Greek philosophy and mythology; and in general fashions a thoroughlyidiosyncratic approach to his subject matter. The result is a work that is readable and entertaining, if attimes a bit unwieldy.
A Future We Can't Predict
Taleb advocates what he calls "nonpredictive decision making" focused on the ability of the unit inquestion (whether that be an individual, institution, industry or society) to withstand unexpected change.Yet to simply survive is not enough. Taleb is interested in things that actually thrive on uncertainty. Tomerely avoid harm is, in his terms, to be
-- and at times this is an acceptable result. Robustnessfalls in the middle of a continuum he calls The Triad. At the far left is
-- that which requirestranquility, certainty and predictability -- and at the far right, in the absence of a better word for it, is
Antifragility, it should be pointed out, doesn't mean that volatility will always be experienced positively. Itsimply means that the antifragile has more of an upside than downside from random events. As Talebnotes, "Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and grow when exposed to volatility, randomness,disorder, and stressors and love adventure, risk, and uncertainty."Another sports analogy, one Taleb himself uses, effectively illustrates the idea of benefiting from shock.When we go the gym and lift heavy weights (barbells later become a key image in the book), weintentionally apply stress to our body. Muscle tissue is strained and even broken down. The body'sresponse is to overcompensate to the trauma and emerge stronger than before. This process of overreaction to stress and setbacks, the author argues, is intrinsic to our very being, to all of evolution, tonature and to every human system that has survived. It is the process of life itself. The reverse holds trueas well: Remove stress from a system, and that system grows weak; it becomes fragile. Stay in bed for three weeks instead of lifting weights, and muscles atrophy.
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