FUNCTION OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
to discover the principles that should beadhered to in public affairs
to study the operations of governmentin order to demonstrate what is good, tocriticize what is bad or inefficient, andto suggest improvements
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OFPOLITICAL SCIENCE
useful to constitution-makers, legislators,executives and judges who need models or norms that can be applied to immediatesituations
useful to individuals who seek to understandthe state in which they live
GOALS IN THE STUDY OF POLITICALSCIENCE COURSES
Education for Citizenship
Essential parts of liberal education
Knowledge and understanding of government
political organization comprising theindividuals and institutions authorized to formulate public policies and conduct affairs of state.
-A community of persons, more or lessnumerous, permanently occupying a fixed territoryand possessed of an independent governmentorganised for political ends to which the great bodyof inhabitants render habitual obedience.
ELEMENTS OF STATE1.PEOPLE
inhabitants of the state
sufficient in no
. &capable of maintaining the
of the community & held together by a
Doesn’t matter if they possess diverse racial,cultural or economic interests
The agency or instrumentality, throughwhich the will of the state is formulated,expressed and realized. b.the institution or aggregate of institutions bywhich an independent society makes andcarries out those rules of action which arenecessary to enable men to live in a socialState, or which are imposed upon the peopleforming that society by those who possessthe power or authority of prescribing them.
-fixed portion of the surfaceof the earth, inhabited by the people of thestate. The territory must not be too small asto be unable to provide for the needs of the people; nor should it be too large as to bedifficult to administer. The territory canextend to over a vast expanse, like China or Russia, or be as small as Abu Dhabi.
COMPONENTS OF TERRITORY
terrestrial domain-the land mass maritime or fluvial domain-inland and external watersaerial domain- the air space above the landand water.
means the supreme, uncontrollable power,the absolute right to govern.
The supreme will of the State, the power tomake laws, and enforce them by all themeans of coercion it cares to employ.
Legal sovereignty: power to adapt/alter theconstitution or supreme power to make lawsvs. Political sovereignty: sum total of all theinfluences in a state, legal & non-legal w/cdetermine the course of law
THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF STATE
said that at some point in their history, certain peoplesspontaneously rationally and voluntarilygave up their individual sovereignties andunited with other communities to form alarger political unit deserving to be called astate.
. According to thistheory, the invention of agricultureautomatically brought into being a surplus of food, enabling some individuals to divorcethemselves from food production and to become potters, weavers, smiths, masons,and so on, thus creating an extensivedivision of labor.
A close examination of history indicates that only a coercive theorycan account for the rise of the state. Forceand not enlightened self-interest. is themechanism by which political evolution hasled. step by step, from autonomous villagesto the state.
Social contract theory
provides therationale behind the historically importantnotion that legitimate state authority must bederived from the consent of the governed.
STATE, AS DISTINGUISHED FROM NATION
The state pertains to a legal concept, while the nationrefers to a racial or ethnic concept.…
AS DISTINGUISHED FROM GOVERNMENT
The government is only an element of the state. Thegovernment is an agent, and the State is the principal.The government externalizes the will of the State.
FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
The government performs two functions—
theconstituent and the ministrant.