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Published by: Daisy on Jun 30, 2009
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Celebrating 20 years of The Montreal Protocol
The magazine o the United Nations Environment Programme -
September 2007
...charting the history o the ozone layer romits ormation 400 million years ago throughto the present day, including the protocolsadopted to protect it. The ozone layer at a glance...
a walk throughhistory - page 4 
Mohamed T. El-Ashry,
SeniorFellow, UN Foundation and CEOand Chairman o the GEF1991-2003......describes the unprecedented compactthat is saving the ozone layer and calls or asimilar one to combat climate change.
a new compact? - page 14
Drusilla Huford, Liu Yi and Romina Picolotti
demonstrate the success o strong leadershipin their respective countries.
strong leadership - page 10
recovery delayed - page 16
...describes how climate change is delayingthe recovery o the ozone layer, and callsor action.Pro 
Mario Molina,
NobelPrizewinner or Chemistry ...
Danielle Fest Grabiel,
a seniorcampaigner at the EnvironmentalInvestigation Agency...
crucial crossroads - page 20
...argues that the Montreal Protocolmust be revitalised to meet newand urgent challenges.
Neneh Cherry,
singer andsongwriter...
Kalpana Sharma,
a columnist or The Hindu where she was untilrecently Deputy Editor......describes diculties in phasing outozone depleting substances in India. 
meeting the target - page 18
alsopage 3 reectionspage 8 verbatim and numberspage 9 bookspage 3 peoplepage 24 awards and eventspage 25 wwwpage 26 products
...believes the world is “beginning to wake up”to environmental challenges.
cherry trees - page 27
, the magazine o theUnited Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)PO Box 30552Nairobi, KenyaTel: (254 20)762 234Fax: (254 20)7623 927e-mail: uneppub@unep.orgTo view current and past issues o thispublication online, please visitwww.unep.org/ourplanetISSN 0 - 7394
Director o Publication:
Eric Falt
Georey Lean
Naomi Poulton, David Simpson
Special Contributor:
Nick Nuttall
Distribution Manager:
Manyahleshal Kebede
Amina Darani
Producedy by:
UNEP Division o Communications and Public Inormation
Printed by:
Distributed by:
SMI BooksThe contents o this magazine do notnecessarily reect the views or policies o UNEP or the editors, nor are they an ocialrecord. The designations employed and thepresentation do not imply the expressions o any opinion whatsoever on the part o UNEPconcerning the legal status o any country,territory or city or its authority or concerning thedelimitation o its rontiers or boundaries.* All dollar ($) amounts reer to US dollars.
Mostaa Tolba,
President o theInternational Centre or Environmentand Development and UNEP’sExecutive Director at the time o the negotiation o the MontrealProtocol......describes the process that led to theworld’s most successul environmentaltreaty and calls or urther action.
lessons learned - page 6
 Jamie Choi,
F-gases project leaderat Greenpeace, China...
greenreeze - page 22
...describes the rapid spread o greenrerigeration, but says that moreremains to be done.
by Achim Steiner,UN Under-Secretary-Generaland Executive Director o UNEP& Marco Gonzalez, ExecutiveSecretary o the Ozone Secretariat
UNEP promotesenvironmentally sound practicesglobally and in its own activities.This magazine is printed on 00% recycledpaper, using vegetable -based inks and othereco-riendly practices. Our distribution policyaims to reduce UNEP’s carbon ootprint.
It was 1987. The Soviet Union launched the Mir Space Station, the worldpopulation reached ve billion, Oscar Arias Sanchez won the Nobel PeacePrize and Paul Simon’s ‘Graceland’ was named record o the year. But perhapsthe key event occurred in Canada, when the world’s nations agreed to theMontreal Protocol to repair and protect the Earth’s protective ozone layer. The treaty is perhaps the single most successul international environmentalagreement ever made. It generates science and deploys unds to assistdeveloping countries to phase out ozone damaging chemicals, likechlorouorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. But its impact stretches beyondsaeguarding public health rom excessive ultra violet rays rom the sun.It is now clear that - as ozone depleting substances are also oten powerulgreenhouse gases - the treaty has also spared the planet and its people muchglobal warming. Above all, it is a symbol o how, when aced with a seriousinternational threat, nations can set aside diferences and make commoncause under the United Nations. This edition o Our Planet celebrates the Protocol’s 20th anniversary and thepast, present - and also perhaps uture - achievements o those who have madeit a success. Future because - though 95 per cent o the substances it controlshave been phased out - the remaining ve per cent may prove troublesome.Getting rid o them is necessary or the ozone layer’s ull recovery.Besides, some ozone depleting chemicals are also being increasinglyemployed in ways that all outside the treaty’s provision. An example ismethyl bromide being used not as a controlled pesticide but as a currentlyuncontrolled umigant on wooden pallets in international shipments.UNEP’s involvement in the issue began in 1977 ollowing rising disquiet overlinks between CFCs and damage to the Earth’s protective ozone layer. The bigcatalyst or action came when the British Antarctic Survey ound an ozonehole over Antarctica in 1985. Remarkably, governments acted switly to agreeon the treaty once the science was accepted. Just as important, industry -once provided with incontrovertible evidence- also moved ast to provideand use alternatives. The Multilateral Fund - which has provided over $1.3 billion in unding ordeveloping country phase outs – is another key to success. This summer Chinashut down ve plants, putting it two and a hal years ahead o the developingcountries’ 2010 deadline or phasing out CFCs and halons.A big challenge, as governments celebrate in Montreal in September, is howthe treaty can contribute even more to combating climate change. Scientistsrom the Netherlands and the United States estimate that, by 2010, phasingout CFCs and other ozone depleting substances will save the equivalent o eleven gigatonnes o carbon dioxide a year. This compares to a cut o justone gigatonne over 1990 levels mandated under the Kyoto Protocol, or twogigatonnes rom what the 2010 levels would be i emissions has been allowedto grow unchecked.It could, they add, contribute even more, since some o the alternativechemicals to CFCs, such as HCFCs and HFCs, also have climate change impacts. They suggest that a combination o accelerated phase-out, the introductiono more climate-riendly products and relatively small changes in industrialpractices could cut the equivalent o something over another gigatonne o carbon dioxide.So the story o the Montreal Protocol has not yet reached its nal chapter. There is much more to do and wider benets to be harvested. But it hasalready achieved much to celebrate, putting the ozone layer on the road torecovery. Experts calculate that - without the decisions taken 20 years ago– atmospheric levels o ozone depleting substances would have increasedtenold by 2050, leading to up to 20 million more cases o skin cancer and 130million more cases o eye cataracts, not to speak o damage to human immunesystems, wildlie and agriculture. Its continued success must be assured.
Cover photo © Franck Boston/istockphoto. The 20-year operation to preserve the ozone layer, the planet’s protection romharmul ultraviolet radiation, is the theme or this issue o Our Planet. Aerosol sprays epitomize in many people’s minds thecampaign launched under the Montreal Protocol to phase out ozone-depleting gases. With the Montreal Protocol’s successcomes the realization that global environmental problems can be solved by global commitment. As our authors point out, thisincludes climate change, the pre-eminent challenge o our time.

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