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Published by: Daisy on Jun 30, 2009
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The Marine Environment
The magazine o the United Nations Environment Programme -
December 2007
Conrad C.Lautenbacher,
Jr., UnderSecretary o Commerce orOceans and Atmosphere, USA......decribes how UNEP’s Global Programmeo Action or the Protection o the MarineEnvironment rom Land-Based Activities assistssustainable management o oceans and coasts.
exible instrument - page 4
alsopage 3 reectionspage 7 verbatim and numberspage 5 bookspage 24 peoplepage 25 awards and eventspage 29 wwwpage 30 products
, the magazine o theUnited Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)PO Box 30552Nairobi, KenyaTel: (254 20)762 234Fax: (254 20)7623 927e-mail: uneppub@unep.orgTo view current and past issues o thispublication online, please visitwww.unep.org/ourplanetISSN 0 - 7394
Director o Publication:
Eric Falt
Georey Lean
Naomi Poulton, David Simpson
Assistant Coordinator:
Anne-France White
Special Contributor:
Nick Nuttall
Distribution Manager:
Manyahleshal Kebede
Amina Darani
Producedy by:
UNEP Division o Communications and Public Inormation
Printed by:
Distributed by:
SMI BooksThe contents o this magazine do notnecessarily reect the views or policies o UNEP or the editors, nor are they an ocialrecord. The designations employed and thepresentation do not imply the expressions o any opinion whatsoever on the part o UNEPconcerning the legal status o any country,territory or city or its authority or concerning thedelimitation o its rontiers or boundaries.* All dollar ($) amounts reer to US dollars.
Cameron Diaz,
the actress whohas appeared in 35 successulHollywood lms and was nominatedour times or the Golden Globes...... describes her green upbringing andexplains how she encourages others to beenvironmentally-riendly.
everyone's cause - page 31
Sandra Bessudo,
Director o the Malpelo/MarViva Foundation Colombia......describes a pioneering bid to conservea unique patch o the world’s seas.
living laboratory - page 22
Prof Dr Ulf Riebesell
o theLeibniz Institute o MarineSciences in Kiel, Germany......describes how acidication o the oceans hasbecome a new reason or rapid and decisiveaction to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
acid oceans - page 10
Ibrahim Thiaw,
Director o UNEP’s Division o Environmental Policy Implementation...
rethink, realign, redirect - page 18
...describes how UNEP’sOceans and Coasts Programmeis being redesigned in the aceo new challenges....describes the importance and role o the Lawo the Sea in protecting and preserving themarine environment.
matters o judgement - page 26
Philippe Gautier,
Registrar,International Tribunal or theLaw o the Sea; Proessor,Université Catholique deLouvain (Louvain-la-Neuve) ...
Efthimios E. Mitropoulos,
Secretary-Generalo the International Maritime Organization...
ship shape - page 8
...describes what is being done toprotect the marine environmentrom shipping....describes international eorts tobuild knowledge, through oceanassessment, as the basis o sounddecision making.
Lee A. Kimball,
a member o the Group o Experts o the Assessment o Assessments o the state o the marine environment...
building knowledge - page 12
Gerald Marten,
an ecologist at theEast-West Center in Honolulu andauthor o 
Human Ecology:Basic Concepts for SustainableDevelopment 
Amanda Suutari,
 an environmental journalist,.......describe how restoringmangroves can turn a viciousenvironment and developmentcycle into a virtuous one.
tipping points - page 20
His All Holiness EcumenicalPatriarch Bartholomew,
theArchbishop o Constantinople......describes how disorder in the world’soceans and other waters is prooundlytroubling or lie on Earth.
in the same boat - page 16
by Achim Steiner,UN Under-Secretary-General andExecutive Director, UNEP
UNEP promotesenvironmentally sound practicesglobally and in its own activities.This magazine is printed on 00% recycledpaper, using vegetable -based inks and othereco-riendly practices. Our distribution policyaims to reduce UNEP’s carbon ootprint.
Ducie atoll will not be amiliar to most readers o 
Our Planet 
, but perhaps itshould be. In many ways this tiny uninhabited speck at the ar end o a Pacicisland chain symbolizes the challenges o trying to sustainably manage theworld’s seas and oceans. A ew years ago scientists recording new species onnearby Pitcairn Island went to Ducie out o curiosity. In a morning’s stroll theycatalogued almost 1,000 items o litter and rubbish — rom old bread cratesto plastic bags, a punctured ootball, discarded meat tins, and two toy cars. This unattractive haul, collected almost 6,000 kilometres rom the nearestcontinent is bad enough. But perhaps even more cause or alarm is the oteninvisible pollution and sustained over-exploitation o marine resources.Some months ago, UNEP launched its agship report — Global EnvironmentOutlook-4. Its point o departure is the 1987 Brundtland Commission. GEO-4asks how we have ared in the past two decades. The answer, including onmarine issues, is ‘not very well’. In 1987 collapsed sheries numbered 15 percent globally. GEO-4 says this has now roughly doubled to 30 per cent. Twentyyears ago a th o sh stocks were over-exploited; this has now risen to about40 per cent. In 2004, there were around 149 dead zone sites — oten vastareas o seasonal, occasional or even permanent de-oxygenated water. Newassessments put the total at 200. The case o dead zones and o Ducie atoll underline a urther reality: managinga transition back to healthy and productive seas and oceans will requirethe international community to address the link between activities on landand their impacts on the marine world. Sewage, solid wastes and ertilizers,sediments, chemicals and even nuclear materials almost inevitably migrate tocoastal waters. Scientists are also increasingly concerned about the impacts o greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, which may trigger acidicationo the seas, aecting corals and shellsh and, indeed, knock the entireood chain.Among the central international responses to marine management are theUNEP Regional Seas and the UNEP Global Programme o Action (GPA). Morethan 60 countries — including Bangladesh, Barbados, Costa Rica, India and thePhilippines — have developed action programmes, many o which have ledto revised or new laws on coastal policy, water policy and integrated coastalmanagement. Rehabilitation o coastal ecosystems, or example mangroves,is happening in countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nigeria and Sri Lanka,and the designation o marine protected areas, a potentially importantmanagement option, is accelerating rom a pitiully low level. Mexico, orexample, has established signicant areas in the past ve years. The economic benets can be signicant. In Fiji, no-take zones and bettermanagement o marine areas has increased species such as mangrove lobstersby 250 per cent a year, with annual increases o 120 per cent in nearby waters.Meanwhile, the integration o coastal and inland river basin management isalso evolving. The Global Environment Facility is supporting this approach,as well as integrated management o shared living marine resources in theCaribbean. There are many success stories. And there is cause or optimism inother ora, such as in the World Trade Organization with respect to sheriessubsidizes. But, as GEO-4 concludes, while we have rolled the multilateralresponse out across many sustainability challenges, including marine, wehave not matched the magnitude or the pace o the challenge.Part o the response must come rom partnerships between the UN,governments, business, civil society and citizens. I am pleased that the work o the GPA, or example, has been endorsed by industry bodies, including thosecovering dredging and ports and harbours. The response must also includemonitoring, compliance and enorcement o existing agreements, backed bythe resources needed to realize their potential. The key missing link is economics. The world must learn to truly value marineecosystems and saeguard their enormous income generating potential.Sometimes these economic benets are overlooked. Take the parrot sh asan example. In Kenya, the Watamu Marine Reserve is a magnet or touristskeen to experience its classic blue sea and bright white sand. According tolocal naturalist Richard Bennett, parrot sh chomping on coral heads eachgenerate one kilogram o ne white sand a day. Remove parrot sh romthe equation by polluting or over shing and you not only say goodbye toattractive marine organisms, but goodbye sand, tourists and economicallyimportant oreign exchange.
Cover photo © SHINICHI EGUCHI/ amana images/ Gallo Images/ Getty Images. Complex, beautiul, awe-inspiring, yet ragile,the marine environment is the theme o this edition o Our Planet. Seen rom space, Earth is the blue planet. Oceans coveraround 7 per cent o the Earth’s surace, and are home to a vast proportion o the world’s wildlie and plants. But the world’soceans and seas – rom the Antarctic to the Caribbean – are under increasing pressure rom pollution, global warming andspecies depletion. Preserving their ragile ecosystems is a key component o reversing the planet’s environmental decline.

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