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Combined Avesta Grammar

Combined Avesta Grammar

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TEACH YOURSELF
 AVESTALANGUAGE
(A beginner’s guide for learning theSCRIPT, GRAMMAR & LANGUAGEof the Zoroastrian scriptural texts)
By
Dr. Ervad Ramiyar Parvez Karanjia
June 2005
1
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction..........................................................................................................................4I. THE AVESTAN ALPHABET ........................................................................................51. A brief account of the Avestan texts...........................................................................52. The Alphabets (1)........................................................................................................73. The Alphabets (2)........................................................................................................94. The Alphabets (3)......................................................................................................115. The Alphabets (4)......................................................................................................136. Phonetic divisions of the Alphabets...........................................................................167. Rules for placement of letters....................................................................................18II. SANDHI.......................................................................................................................201. Vowel Sandhi.............................................................................................................202. Consonantal Sandhi...................................................................................................23III. ROOTS & THEIR GRADATIONS.............................................................................261. Roots..........................................................................................................................262. Vowel Gradation (Guna and Vraddhi).......................................................................29IV. NOUNS .......................................................................................................................311. Primary and Secondary Nouns...................................................................................31V. ADJECTIVES ..............................................................................................................331. Simple and Derivative Adjectives ............................................................................332. Degrees of Adjectives................................................................................................33VI. PARTICIPLES.............................................................................................................351. Present Participle.......................................................................................................352. Future Participle.........................................................................................................353. Perfect Participle........................................................................................................354. Past Participle ............................................................................................................36VII. GENDERS..................................................................................................................38VIII DECLENSIONS.........................................................................................................401. General Case Terminations........................................................................................402. Vowel Bases...............................................................................................................42Bases ending in

Masculine ..............................................................................422. Bases ending in

Neuter .........................................................................433. Bases ending in

Masculine...........................................................................44Bases ending in

Feminine .......................................................................455. Bases ending in

Masculine .....................................................................476. Bases ending in

Feminine..............................................................................487. Bases ending in

Neuter ...........................................................................498. Bases ending in

Masculine .........................................................................499. Bases ending in

Feminine..............................................................................5010. Bases ending in

 Neuter ...........................................................................503. CONSONANTAL BASES .......................................................................................511. Bases ending in

(
 
)

Masculine ...................................................................512. Bases ending in
(

)

Feminine ......................................................................513. Bases ending in

(

)

Neuter ..................................................................534. Bases ending in

Masculine .............................................................................535. Bases ending in

Feminine
.................................................................................542
 
6. Bases ending in

(

)

Neuter ............................................................................547. Bases ending in
 
Masculine ........................................................................568. Bases ending in

(

)

Masculine
....................................................................569. Bases ending in

(

)

Masculine...................................................................5710. Bases ending in

(

)

Neuter ........................................................................57IX. PRONOUNS................................................................................................................59X. NUMERALS.................................................................................................................63XI. COMPOUNDS............................................................................................................65XII. VERBS.......................................................................................................................671. Ten Classes of Conjugation.......................................................................................672. Conjugational Tenses and Moods..............................................................................701. Present Tense.........................................................................................................702. Imperfect Tense......................................................................................................733. Imperative Mood....................................................................................................764. Potential Mood.......................................................................................................783. Non-conjugational Tenses and Moods.......................................................................811. Future Tense...........................................................................................................812. Perfect Tense..........................................................................................................813. Aorist Tense...........................................................................................................824. Precative or Benedictive Mood :............................................................................82Subjunctive Mood......................................................................................................83XIII. DERIVATIVE VERBS.............................................................................................851. Frequentative or Intensive verb .............................................................................852. Desiderative Verb..................................................................................................853. Denominative or Nominal Verb.............................................................................864. Causal Verb............................................................................................................865. Incohative Verb .....................................................................................................87XIV PARTICLES..............................................................................................................881. Adverbs......................................................................................................................882. Prepositions................................................................................................................893. Conjunctions..............................................................................................................904. Prefixes......................................................................................................................90XV. SOME GENERAL RULES.......................................................................................921. Formation of Words and Sentences...........................................................................922. Syntax........................................................................................................................933. Reduplication.............................................................................................................934. Insertion of redundant letters.....................................................................................945. Strong and Weak forms.............................................................................................95XVI. TRANSLATION.......................................................................................................96Avesta to English.......................................................................................................96English to Avesta.......................................................................................................97Specimen Translation of a text –SAROSH BĀJ........................................................99QUESTION BANK ........................................................................................................111KEY TO EXERCISES.....................................................................................................1153

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